|Motto: "Aνυπότακτος, Aνίκητος, Aδιάκοπος"
Unbowed, Unbent, Unbroken
|Anthem: "Ὕμνος εἰς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν"
Hymn to Liberty
Location of Sinope in Western Althena
|Capital||Braavos the Great|
|Largest city||(same as above)|
|Ethnic groups||70% Western Althenian
15% Central Althenian
4% Eastern Althenian
|-||Doge of Sinope||Diogenes Venizelos|
|-||Establishment of the
Republic of Sinope
|July 2, 612|
165,182 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2013 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2013 estimate|
|Currency||Lagos (£) (
|Date format||dd.mm.yyyy CE|
|Drives on the||right|
Sinope (Sinopian: Σινώπη, Sinōpē), also officially known as the Sinope Republic (Sinopian: Σινώπη Δημοκρατία; Sinōpē Dīmokratía), is an Alcadean unitary republic. It is the oldest republic in Adonia. It borders Calibria to the east, Bruellen to the northwest, Trentannia to the northeast and Matinenda to the west. It's northern border is delimited by the Atlas Mountains. To the south, it consists of the Alcadean Sea and to the extreme east, the Alannain Sea, to the east of the Aegean Sea and to the west the Ionian Sea. It also borders, with the claimed territory of Kariko, Ugento and Sameshria. Sinope covers an area of 427,820.65 km² (165,182 sq mi) and has a largely temperate climate. With 51.7 million inhabitants, it is the ??? most populous country in Adonia. Sinope is also the ??-largest economy in Adonia.
Modern Sinope traces its roots to the civilization of Ancient Sinope, which is considered the cradle of all Western civilisation. As such, it is the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, the Olympic Games, Western literature and historiography, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, and Western drama, including both tragedy and comedy. The cultural and technological achievements of Sinope greatly influenced the world, with many aspects of Sinopian civilisation being imparted to the East through Sinopian colonialism, and to the West through the Calibrian Empire.
Sinope has been a major power in Western Althena since the Antiquity, reaching the height of its influence and prestige during the 15th, 16th and early 17th centuries, when it controlled most of the commerce in the Alcadean sea at the time. This legacy is reflected in the prevalence of Sinopian language, culture, and architecture worldwide. Sinope has produced many influential artists, thinkers, and scientists, and remains a prominent global centre of culture.
Sinope remains a major power with significant cultural, economic, military, and political influence in Western Althena and around the world. Sinopian citizens enjoy a high standard of living, with the country performing well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, civil liberties, and human development. Sinope is a member of numerous international institutions, including the USN, and is a founding member of the Adonian Community. It is also a founding and leading member state of the Alcadean Union.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Ancient Sinope
- 2.2 Calibrian Empire
- 2.3 Low Middle Ages
- 2.4 High Middle Ages
- 2.5 16th Century
- 2.6 17th Century
- 2.7 18th Century
- 2.8 19th Century
- 2.9 20th Century
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Infrastructure
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
In Sinopian Mythology, Sinope (Sinopian: Σινώπη) was one of the daughters of Asopus and is the eponym of the Sinope Republic. According to Corinna and Diodorus Siculus, Sinope was seized by the god Apollo and carried over to the place where later stood the region honouring her name, west of the Aegean Peninsula. However, the Argonautica and Valerius Flaccus relate that Sinope was abducted to the site by Zeus, who, in his passion, swore to fulfil her dearest wish. Sinope declared she wished to remain a virgin. Sinope later tricked Apollo and the river Halys in the same fashion and remained a virgin all her life. Her virginity is symbolized in the purity of the Sinope Republic and the fact that she has never been conquered after her foundation. Despite Sinope to be the eponym of the country, Poseidon is regarded as the patron god for most of the population despite being officially the patron god solely of Braavos.
The earliest evidence of human presence in the Sinope region, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave. Neolithic settlements in Sinope, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Western Althena by several centuries, as Sinope lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Western Althena.
Sinope is home to the first advanced civilizations in Western Althena and is considered the birthplace of Western civilization, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the Aegean peninsula at around 3200 BC and the Minoan civilization in Santorini (2700–1100 BC). These civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Myceneans in Linear B, an early form of Sinopian. The Myceneans gradually absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered in a period known as the Sinopian Dark Ages, from which written records are absent.
The end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to 776 BC, the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 8th or 7th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across Sinope, which spread to the shores of the Alannain and Alcadean Seas, Western Calibria (Calibrian: Magna Sinopia, or Greater Sinope) and Matinenda. These states and their colonies reached great levels of prosperity that resulted in an unprecedented cultural boom, that of classical Sinope, expressed in architecture, drama, science, mathematics and philosophy. In 508 BC, Cleisthenes instituted the world's first democratic system of government in Myr.
The Kananians were famous metalworkers, and by the end of the 8th century BC, Sinopian city-states were sending out envoys to the Levant (the eastern Alannain sea) for metal goods. The height of Kananian trade was around the 7th and 8th centuries. There is a dispersal of imports (ceramic, stone, and faience) from the Levant that traces a Kananian commercial channel to the Sinopian mainland via the Aegean peninsula. Myr shows rich evidence of this trade with eastern imports, unline most other Sinopian coastal cities. Al Mina is a specific example of the trade that took place between the Sinopians and the Kananians. It has been theorized that by the 8th century BC, Euboean traders established a commercial enterprise with the Levantine coast and were using Al Mina (in Sameshira) as a base for this enterprise. There is still some question about the veracity of these claims concerning Al Mina.
The city-states fought each others for three centuries which lead to a period of instability and a famine in 231 BC. The neighbouring growing Calibrian Empire took the opportunity and in 210 BC the Aegean peninsula was annexed as a province by Calibria, and the rest of Sinope became a Calibrian protectorate. The process was completed in 202 BC when the Calibrian Emperor ??? annexed the rest of Sinope and constituted it as the senatorial province of Sinope.
Sinope was composed of city-states, the most important being Katerini, Apollonia and Myr. These cities became fully incorporated in the Calibrian Empire and were on important East-West commercial routes. The Sinopian culture was promulgated through the Empire and Calibrians adapted the Old Gods religion as theirs, changing names for gods and incorporating certain Calibrian traditions. Calibrians were really fond of the Sinopian culture.
Calibrian Civil War and the Republic of Sinope
As a Free City, Braavos' influence grew as it had commercial links with Barbarian ports in the south of the Alcadean Sea. It eventually became a threat to Cecina, but Calibria had its difficulties dealing with slave rebellions, economic recession, famines and riots in the capital. The Empire was facing various Barbarian invasions from the Rokes in the east and south and Bruellan tribes from the north.
The political power of Braavos on the other city-states of the historical region of Sinope became absolute in 612 when Doge Plato signed a treaty that would create the Republic of Sinope under the rule of the Doge of Braavos with the most powerful city-states of Sinope to unite against potential Barbarian invasion from the North, South or from Calibrian oppression. Lindos, Ragousa, Apollonia, Myr, and many other cities joined the Braavosi lead and the Republic. Calibria did not approve of such independence-oriented move by the Doge and started a war against the Republic of Sinope. It was the beginning of the Calibrian Civil War. Calibrians did not even enter Braavos and were pushed back in the Alannain Sea. A fierce battle in Kariko happened, resulting in a Sinopian victory. Sinope became completely independent. Its main asset is its position. The lagoon protects Braavos and most of the other cities against enemies and makes it difficult to access. Its location between the East and West of Althena enables it to serve as a commercial bridge between these two regions, ensuring the fortunes of the region.
Doge Plato's intuition was deemed right when Justinius fell into the hands of the Rokes who took the opportunity of the instability with Sinope to completely invade. Many other tribes took control of the remaining Calibrian provinces. With the Visigoths in Insulo, the Etrus in Etrusque, Vandals in Matinenda, Sinope was surrounded by instability and anarchy, following the fall of the Empire. Calibrians survived through negotiations with the invading Ostrogoths who had settled in parts of Sinope and Calibria. Emperor Trojan convinced the Gothic king Theodoric to depart for Matinenda as magister militum per Matinendum ("commander in chief for Matinenda") with the aim to depose the resisting province of Matinenda and its charismatic leader Zeno. By urging Theodoric into conquering Matinenda, Trojan rid the remaining Calibrian Empire of an unruly subordinate (Zeno) and moved another (Theodoric) further from the heart of the Empire. After Zeno's defeat in 616, Theodoric ruled Matinenda on his own. In 619, Emperor Trojan was assassinated by a coup d'état orchestrated by his nephew, Marcus. Marcus proclaimed the Republic of Calibria on his uncle's body in early 620.
Low Middle Ages
As the Sinope Republic solidified its position in the nothern Alcadean Sea, it entered on a centuries-long interaction, sometimes friendly and sometimes hostile, with the Republic of Calibria. Sinope emerged as Calibria's chief antagonist in the region, resulting in several wars. The two powers however also enjoyed periods of peace and alliance, most notably during the Second Kabier siege of Cecina, where the Sinopian army played a crucial role in breaking the siege. Sinope had a strong cultural influence on Calibria and vice-versa. After the disintegration of the Kingdom of Thebes, the Sinopians expanded their territory up to the Thessa Valley. Later the Sinopians confronted the advance of the Trents and Matinendans, and achieved a decisive victory over the Bevanians, forcing them to establish themselves permanently in Southern Bruellen.
During the late 9th and early 10th centuries, Doge Batis achieved a string of victories over the Calibrians, and expanded the Sinope Republic to its current eastern border with Calibria. Braavos became the main Alcadean economic centre and its biggest port. Sinope was also a cultural centre along with Calibria, keeping most of its antiquity traditions and cultural aspects such as baths, administration and religions. While Calibria became christian, Sinope kept its main Old Gods faith, even if many religions established temples in Braavos and other Sinopian cities. Sinope developed a mixed relationship with the new state of Relastova, which had emerged to the south across the Alcadean Sea. This relationship would have long-lasting repercussions in the history of the East Slavs, and Sinope quickly became the main trading and cultural partner for Theodosia.
High Middle Ages
In 1235, Sinope entered into a full scale war against Matinenda. Sinope's naval dominance contributed to the victory of Sinope and the Doge Republic took control of the island of Valessia. It was the beginning of the major Sinopian expansions in the Alcadean Sea. At the end of a huge expansion born of its military power and an extraordinarily rapid regression, the Sinope Republic retains control of the entry and exit of the Alannain Sea and the Trestä Sea. If the horizons of the Alcadean Sea were closing slowly, the Trestä Sea and Alannain Sea called the revival of the Republican power, if Doges wanted to promote Sinopian merchants and cities. After 1400, the Great Plague happens for two decades in Sinope and, in general, to Althena, a great loss of population, causing at the same time economic and social upheavals. The Great Plague was marked by the heavy repression of non-Alcadeans, mainly Calibrians, by the newly formed Ministry of State Security, the YAK. The Great Plague, an epidemic of bubonic plague that spread over the whole of Althena, arrived in Sinope in 1338 and killed as much as a third to half the population.
Expansion and Decline
In 1530, the Secular reformation in favor of Braavos power is imposed on the citizens of the Sinope Republic and its colonies. In 1536, the main Sinopian resistance is scanned. Remains most reluctant some groups of Sameshirans, Forgians and Valessians, isolated in their territories. Thus Braavos administrative authority can better justify the authoritarian colonization of the Sinopian elite and impose a rigorous framework to colonial farmers.
The Sinope Republic expands considerably during the sixteenth century, in large part thanks to the increase in maritime traffic in its controlled straits. The country controlling both straits of Kariko and the Strait of Valyria, a moderate passage tax can there be levied by Doge power. Trade between Eastern Althena and Western Althena increased greatly during this period and the Sinopian rulers who captures a portion of the resources of the Eastern Alcadean did not hesitate to tax it.
Gasparo Contarini's De Magistratibus et Republica Sinopium (1544) clearly shows the approval and interest which surrounded Sinope's constitutional arrangements. It also illustrates foreigners' astonishment at Sinope's independence and resistance to foreign powers and, not least, at her having emerged unscathed from many wars. Contarini suggested that the secret of Sinope's greatness lay in the co-existence of Aristotle's three types of government, monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy. In his opinion, the Lordship and the Agora were the democratic part, the Senate and the Ten were the oligarchy, while the doge represented monarchy. The combination of these three principles in the Sinopian government came as close as was possible to perfection in the mechanism of government.
The struggle for supremacy in Matinenda between Etrusque and Insulo was resolved in favour of the latter. Caught between the Insulonian-Imperial and Calibrian and Trentannian superpowers, the Republic adopted a skilful political strategy of quasi-neutrality in Althena, which turned into a defensive stance against the Trents and Calibrians. Sinope's maritime aid was potentially useful to Insulo, but not to the point of allowing her to reinforce her position in the west, which would increase her strength in Matinenda as well, where she was practically the only independent state without a non-aggression treaty with Insulo.
Tax reforms took place in 1548 and 1568, whereby multiple complex taxes on independent farmers were simplified and standardised throughout the district; tax assessments per farm were adjusted to reflect ability to pay. Crown tax revenues increased, but more importantly the new system was perceived as fairer and more acceptable. Sinope now built the first modern army in Western Althena, supported by a sophisticated tax system and government bureaucracy.
A major tax, known as the Doge's Tax, was imposed in the Kariko strait, forcing Calibrian merchants to pay heavy taxes to the Sinope Republic in 1620. This lead to the Fourth Sinope-Calibrian war, also known as the war of Kariko in 1652. Calibria surprised Sinope with Trentannian assistance and took control of the eastern part of the Kariko strait, removing the Doge's Tax as well. Kariko is still claimed today by Sinope and is under Calibrian rule. This was the beginning of the downfall of the Sinopian Republic and losses of many of its colonies during the 17th century. Great powers in Western Althenia were starting to form themselves, especially Trentannia, but also Matinenda and Calibria. Sinope, who wanted to favor trade and commerce before political power and dominance, caved in and gave control to many of its colonies to its neighbours.
The First Sinopian Civil War broke out in 1619, largely as a result of an ongoing series of conflicts between the oligarchic families. Families accused each others of nepotism and not being honorable. This lead to political violence and sacks by hired mercenaries of oligarch business, which cause economical and political instability. The Civil War ended with the rule of Doge Empedocles in 1631 until 1646, but the leadership was fragile. The Second Sinopian Civil War began in 1646 and officially ended in 1659 with the rule of Doge Thales. The Second Civil War was the result of increased cronyism among the Sinopian elite which caused an economic crisis at the end of Empedocles' rule.
In 1607 Sinope built an establishment at Kavala. This was the beginning of colonialism by Sinope in Neridea. Many Sinopians settled then in Neridea for religious or economic reasons. About 70% of migrants from Sinope who came between 1630–1660 were indentured servants. The Sinopian merchants holding plantations in the southern parts of Argos then resorted rather quickly to the slavery of Nerideans in order to cultivate their plantations and sell raw material (particularly cotton and tobacco) in Althena. The Sinopian merchants involved in colonization amassed fortunes equal to those of great aristocratic landowners in Sinope, and their money, which fuelled the rise of the middle class, permanently altered the balance of political power. Slavery was ignored in the Sinopian colonies due to an increased political instability in mainland Sinope, starting with the rule of Doge Onatas in 1618 to Doge Timaeus in 1658. Doge Thales came into power in 1659 and heavily repressed colonial dissidents. He sent the Sinopian army to Argos to remove slavery and prosecute slave owners merchants. The arrival of the "liberators" was well seen by the ethnic Neridean population and ethnic Nerideans were put into shared control of the colony by a system of dual governors.
Sinope was a leader in the Enlightenment culture of the day in the arts, architecture, science and learning. A new law in 1712 established for the first time the principle of freedom of the press—a notable step towards liberty of political opinion. The Academy of Science was founded in 1714 and the Academy of Letters, History, and Antiquities in 1715.
The Senate was reformed to include half of its members being elected directly by the population. Conscription was abolished in 1745 by Doge Phalerus. The Academy of Military Arts was founded in 1744 to form young men and women, a first in Sinopian history to allow women to serve in the military, to the arts of war. The rise of firearms technology saw the development of the Sinopian weapons industry and military strategist.
During the late 18th century and early 19th century, there was considerable social upheaval as a largely agrarian society was transformed by technological advances and increasing mechanization, which was the Industrial Revolution. Much of the agricultural workforce was uprooted from the countryside and moved into large urban centres of production, as the steam-based production factories could undercut the traditional cottage industries, because of economies of scale and the increased output per worker made possible by the new technologies. The consequent overcrowding into areas with little supporting infrastructure saw dramatic increases in the rate of infant mortality, crime, and social deprivation.
The rise of political ideologies and organizations saw some political instability in Sinope during all of the 19th century with anarchism and communism rising in the population. Ugento became a Sinopian protectorate from 1820 until the Great Adonian War. Sinope had lost almost all of its Alcadean colonies, while it kept a strong colony in Argos.
In 1825, Doge Praxiphanes was deposed, blinded and exiled to Calibria because he refused to support the working laws voted by the Senate which would improve the social and working conditions of the labour force. He was replaced by Doge Satyrus. In June 1830, demonstrations against the government broke out and were suppressed. Leaders were arrested, including prominent politicians. This lead to the Council of Ten to depose Satyrus in 1835. In the same year, the government banned several democratic and socialist newspapers in Sinope; the editors were arrested by Doge Cronius. This media censorship was nicknamed the Dark Age, because the population was kept in the dark and Cronius was nicknamed 'The Dark'. The Bruellan communist thinker Karl Marx was at risk so he moved to Cecina in August. Doge Theophrastus was elected in 1842 and restored media freedom.
The government sought ways to balance its budget and reduce its debts. Toward this end, Athanasia Sanna was appointed Finance Minister. When the Senate met at the beginning of October 1852, she proposed an income tax to help balance the finances of Sinope. The oligarchs and bourgeoisie, who would pay most of the tax, protested. The furor over the income tax caused the resignation of Theophrastus as Doge, but a new wine tax also caused protests.
The governments in the mid 19th century strongly supported railway construction for political goals. First, it wanted to knit the regions and cities together. Second, it wanted to maximize trade within Sinope and minimize trade with its Althenan neighbours to avoid becoming dependent on foreign trade. The centralized government in Braavos had the goal of creating a unified nation-state, so it required all students be taught standardized Sinopian. In the process, a new national identity was forged. The introduction of compulsory gymnastics in Sinopian schools in 1870 rested partly on a long tradition, from Antiquity to the Enlightenment, of the importance of physical as well as intellectual training. The Sinopian education system was widely reformed to forge Sinopian scientists and intellectual classes.
Second Kariko War
Foreign policy concerns in the 1930s centered on Bruellan and Trentannian expansionism, which stimulated abortive efforts at Western Althenan defence co-operation. Sinope followed a policy of armed neutrality for the early 20th century but secretly forged alliances with the Relastovan Empire and the Bruellan Empire. The end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century was the belle époque in Western Althena because of peace, prosperity and the cultural innovations of Western Althenan artists, and popular amusements – cabaret, can-can, the cinema, new art forms such as Impressionism and Art Nouveau, mostly coming from Etrusque.
Sinope created a successful model of democratic socialism because of the unique way in which Sinope's labour leaders, politicians, and classes cooperated during the early development period of Sinopian social democracy, consolidated through Theonism and economic difficulties which lead to the end of conservative dominance in the Council of Ten.
Sinope was nevertheless a nation divided internally on notions of ideology, religion, class, regionalisms, and money. On the international front, Sinope came repeatedly to the brink of war with the other imperial powers, such as the 1906 Nontana Incident with Etrusque over Northeast Neridea. Sinope's economy was stagnating in the early 20th century while it almost completely collapsed during the First Adonian Economic Crisis of 1912-1924, but was relatively coped with economic adversity during the Second Adonian Economic Crisis of 1931-1937. With the rise of Theonism and Keynesian economic principles, Sinope was growing stronger as an Imperial power, developing its armament industry and forged a war economy. Sinope's imperial goals were to retake possession of Kariko and ultimately invade Calibria in early 1947, starting the Great Adonian War.
Great Adonian War
On 8 January 1947, the Sinopian army took part in the invasion of Etrusque, joining the Bruellan effort. It was the beginning of the Great Adonian War. On 12 January 1947, Sinope invaded the Kariko under Operation Aegean, formally entered the GAW on the side of the Imperial Powers. In mid-January 1947, Sinope successfully invaded Calibria. While the depleted Calibrian forces put up stiff initial resistance, Sinopian air and naval superiority and Bruellan armoured mobility overwhelmed the remaining Calibrian forces. Sinopian forces arriving in an undefended Cecina on 14 March. This caused a chaotic period of flight for the Calibrian government and effectively ended organized Calibrian military resistance. Sinopian commanders finally met with Calibrian officials on March 18th with the goal of the Calibrian government signing an armistice with the Imperial powers.
On 4 April, an armistice was signed between Calibria and Sinope, which resulted in a division of Calibria whereby Sinope would occupy most of the country and annex back Kariko and Bruellen would control a small Bruellan occupation zone in the north. Calibria remained under Imperial occupation until the liberation of the country after the Allied landings in 1951.
In late 1947, Sinopian and Relastovan troops started the Central Althena Front against Kabier forces. The front was stopped in 1950 by united Kabier and Shaydian forces. During that time, Relastovan and Sinopian forces also contributed in the Eastern Euphemian and Western Althenan fronts. After years of campaigns and war, the Allied powers started to gain back territories in Western Althena. Calibria was liberated in 1951, while Bruellen and Relastova were heavily bombed by Allied planes in 1952. The Treaty of Valessia ended the war with Bruellen, while the Treaty of Okashi ended the war with Okaiken, both signed in August 1952. On 7 September 1952, Sinope, Relastova and the Allied powers signed the Treaty of Myr, officially ending the war.
The war left Sinope relatively intact, with few casualties compared to other major countries taking part of the war. The war resulted in the independence of Argos from Sinope.
At the end of the Great Adonian War, which ended with the Treaty of Myr for Sinope and Relastova, former Allied powers and Imperial powers were still not ready to co-operate despite the creation of the United Sovereign Nations of the World, which Sinope refused to join because of Calibria's membership. Sinope declared itself officially neutral. With the Relastovan Empire developing its nuclear arsenal and other superpowers doing the same, Adonia was the gameboard of several national intelligence agencies. Sinope's YAK was of no exception and was in the centre of political crisis in many countries, including the notorious La Plata Incident in Balisca, where two Samasil citizens were assassinated by YAK agents in 1970. YAK was also involved in the Relastovan Revolution of 1962, financing revolutionary leaders and giving weapons, which saw the end and dissolution of the Relastovan Empire.
Third Kariko War
In November 1972, Sinope under the rule of Doge Minomagus invaded Kariko in response to the military coup d'État that overthrew pro-Sinope Prime Minister Ioannis Kapodistrias to install pro-Calibrian Prime Minister Felix Drusus. The coup had been ordered by the Calibrian government and operated by the Carico National Guard. The Calibrian government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Sinopian Navy and Air Force, and retake the peninsula by amphibious assault. The resulting conflict lasted 1 year and ended with a cease-fire treaty in October 1973, which returned the region to Calibrian control. The conflict was also the result of a protracted historical confrontation regarding the sovereignty of the peninsula. Sinope still claims the region as written in its 10th constitution since it lost the territory in 1654. Doge Minomagus was forced to abdicate by the Council of Ten in 1974.
1974-1994: Panthoides & Sallustius
Since the Second Kariko War, Sinope has focused on stabilising relations with its neighbours and Western Althenan powers. Relations with Calibria have been normalized although there are still heavy tensions. Sinope was a founding member of the Alcadean Union in 1978 with Bruellen and other Western Althenan nations with the aim of eliminating the possibility of further wars between its member states by means of pooling the national heavy industries.
In 1974 opens the post-Minomagus era with the arrival of a more centirst Doge Panthoides. While Sinope enters gradually in the crisis of the 1970s, it was a period characterized by economic crisis, widespread social conflicts and terrorist massacres carried out by opposing extremist groups, with the alleged involvement of Calibrian and Euphemian intelligences. The 70s and early 80s culminated in the assassination of the Sparta railway station massacre in 1982, where 85 people died. Sinope, which was at the time very open to the world, trying to upgrade its relations after the Second Kariko War and the difficult economic crisis emerged with Doge Panthoides' speech in Braavos on 22 May 1983. Panthoides advocates the return to traditional Sinopian values of tolerance and freedom, while focusing on developing the national industry of Sinope and reduce importations. The Sinopian government increased its spending and debt to favour a cultural revival in Sinope. The Sinopian cinema and musical industries saw their golden age during the early 90s. Doge Panthoides also founded the Alcadean Union with Bruellen and other Western Althenan nation, taking an active role in the organization and favoring the country's integration into this supranational union.
At Panthoides's death in 1990, Sallustius became Doge. Sallustius continued his predecessor's policies. He also focused on infrastructure renewal and foreign investments.
After the death of Sallustius in 1990, Nicomachus was elected Doge. The priority of the new government is to reduce unemployment and to prepare the entry of Sinope into the Lagos Zone. Nicomachus's era in office was remembered for Sinope's domestic focus during this period. While the early 1990s saw the Sinopian economy mired in recession, a recovery began starting in 1994 and began accelerating thanks to a boom created by technology.
Recent history: Diogenes
In early 2002, Sinope joined the United Sovereign Nations of the World, an international organisation which promotes co-operation between all countries of Adonia in the areas of legal standards, human rights, democratic development, the rule of law and cultural co-operation. The move was orchestrated by Doge Diogenes and followed a series of talks between Sinope and Calibria to improve the bilateral relations between the two countries and trying to solve the Kariko crisis. Sinope's USNW membership has been described as a gesture of openings from Sinope towards Calibria and Euphemian states. During most of the 2000s, Sinope's economy grew at a good pace and positioned Sinope as one of Adonia's largest economy.
In 2013, Sinope tried to be a mediator in the Bergenstein Civil War conflict. Following the Folland invasion of Fraesia, Sinope has put heavy sanctions and cut all diplomatic relations with Folland. Relations with Folland had previously been altered with the Folland military coup d'état. In November 2013, Sinope along with a coalition of Western Althenan countries launched Operation Last Christmas, a military intervention requested by the Batavian Republic to defend its sovereign territory which was attacked by Bergen insurgents, in the turmoil of the Bergen Wars. The operation was successful and was followed by the subsequent occupation of Bergenstein by Sinopian and Bruellen forces. The Treaty of Braavos was signed in Braavos during a meeting with Bergenstein and Coalition Forces leaders. The treaty ended the war and created the Federal Republic of Berg as a result. Reconstruction begun after the new government took power, but instability and insecurity is still present. In April 2014, the Bergenstein population elected the Weiz Party who restored the monarchy. The Bergen government then tried to get around the Treaty of Braavos by making contracts with private armies to enlarge its military power. However, this being a violation of part III section I of the Treaty of Braavos, Coalition countries condemned the actions of the Bergen government in late April. Sinope imposed a trade and military embargo on Bergenstein and unrecognized the government in power in Bergenstein and declared the Bergen territory to be an occupied zone by the Coalition Froces.
Sinope is an Alcadean nation located in the Northwestern Althena peninsula. The Atlas Mountains form most of its northern boundary, where Sinope's highest point is located on Mount Olympia (4,610 metres). The country is located on the Althenan plate, while most of its mountains were formed during the Pangea expansion where the plate was divided into two different plates. Sinope consists of a mountainous, peninsular mainland jutting out into the Alcadean sea. Sinope features a vast number of islands, most of them in the southwest of the country. Northeastern Sinope features another high-altitude mountain range, the Rhodope range, spreading across in Calibria; this area is covered with vast, thick, ancient forests, including the famous Dadia forest, in the far northeast of the country. Extensive plains are primarily located between Braavos the Great and Thessaly.
With its coastline facing the Alcadean and Alannain seas, its highlands backed upon the elevated Atlas Mountains, and the entire country lying at a latitude subject to a variety of weather patterns during the winter and summer seasons, Sinope has a high number of climatic regions relative to its landmass. The coastal lowlands have typically Mediterranean weather; the highlands have a Mediterranean continental climate. In both the lowlands and the interior, the weather varies markedly from north to south.
The lowlands have mild winters, averaging about 7 °C (45 °F). Summer temperatures average 24 °C (75 °F). In the southern lowlands, temperatures average about 5 °C (9 °F) higher throughout the year. The difference is greater than 5 °C (9 °F) during the summer and somewhat less during the winter.
Inland temperatures are affected more by differences in elevation than by latitude or any other factor. Low winter temperatures in the mountains are caused by the Alcadean Sea air mass that dominates the weather in Northwestern Althena that bring heavy precipitations and sometimes snowfall in the mountains due to rain shadow effect. Southerly and southeasterly winds blow much of the time. Average summer temperatures are lower than in the coastal areas and much lower at higher elevations, but daily fluctuations are greater. Daytime maximum temperatures in the interior basins and river valleys are very high, but the nights are almost always cool.
Average precipitation is heavy, a result of the convergence of the prevailing airflow from the colder Alcadean Sea and the warm eastern continental air mass from the Kabier deserts. Because they usually meet at the point where the terrain rises, the heaviest rain falls in the central uplands. Vertical currents initiated when the continental air is uplifted also cause frequent thunderstorms. Many of these storms are accompanied by high local winds and torrential downpours.
When the continental air mass is weak, Alcadean winds drop their moisture farther inland. Coastal Sinopian cities are thus often flooded during the winter, especially Braavos. When there is a dominant continental air mass, warm air spills onto the lowland areas, which occurs most frequently in the summer. Lowland rainfall averages from 1,000 millimeters (39.4 in) to more than 1,500 millimeters (59.1 in) annually, with the higher levels in the north. Nearly 95% of the rain falls in the winter.
Rainfall in the Atlas Mountains ranges is heavier. Adequate records are not available, and estimates vary widely, but annual averages are probably about 1,800 millimeters (70.9 in) and are as high as 2,550 millimeters (100.4 in) in some northern areas. The northeastern Rhodope ranges are among the wettest areas in Western Althena, receiving some 3,100 mm (122.0 in) of rain annually. The seasonal variation is not quite as great in the coastal area.
In the early years of the republic, the Doge ruled Braavos and then Sinope in an autocratic fashion, but later his powers were limited by the promission, a pledge he had to take when elected. As a result, powers were shared with the Council of Ten, composed of 10 members taken from patrician families, so that he could do nothing without the Council of Ten and the Council of Ten could do nothing without him.
In the 12th century, the aristocratic families of Braavos further diminished the Doge's powers by establishing the Minister of State known as YAK (765) as a supreme tribunal. In 773, these institutions were combined into the Lordship, which consisted of the Doge, the Council of Ten and the three leaders of the YAK. The Lordship is the central body of government, representing the continuity of the republic as shown in the expression: "The Doge is dead, but the Lordship is not".
In 765, the Ministry of State of the three state inquisitors was established to guard the security of the republic. By means of espionage, counterespionage, internal surveillance and a network of informers, they ensured that Sinope did not come under the rule of a single "king", as many other Western Althenan countries did at the time. One of the inquisitors is chosen from the Doge's Councillors, two are chosen from the Council of Ten. The Ministry of State gradually assumed some of the powers of the Council of Ten.
Also created were the College, which forms the executive branch. In 1229, the Senate of the Republic was formed, being 120 members selected by the regional governments and the Council of Ten. These developments left the Doge with little personal power and saw actual authority in the hands of the Council of Ten. In 1426 was established the Agora, which is a popularly elected legislature with limited powers.
Whilst Sinope claimed to be a "Republic", in reality it followed a mixed government model, combining monarchy in the Doge, democracy in the Senate and the Agora, and an aristocracy of Braavos families in the Council of Ten. Machiavelli also refers to Sinope as a republic, considering it "excellent among modern republics" (unlike his native Matinenda).
The doge's prerogatives were not defined with precision, and though the position was entrusted to members of the inner circle of powerful Braavosian families, after several doges had associated a son with themselves in the ducal office, this tendency towards a hereditary monarchy was checked by a law which decreed that no doge had the right to associate any member of his family with himself in his office, or to name his successor. After 1172 the election of the doge was finally entrusted to a committee of forty, who were chosen by four men selected from the Council of Ten, which was itself nominated annually by twelve persons. After a deadlocked tie at the election of 1229, the number of electors was increased from forty to forty-one.
New regulations for the elections of the doge introduced in 1268 remains in force as of this day. Their object was to minimize as far as possible the influence of individual great families, and this was effected by a complex elective machinery. Thirty members of the Great Council of Braavos (popularly elected in the region of Braavos the Great), chosen by lot, were reduced by lot to nine; the nine chose forty and the forty were reduced by lot to twelve, who chose twenty-five. The twenty-five were reduced by lot to nine and the nine elected forty-five. Then the forty-five were once more reduced by lot to eleven, and the eleven finally chose the forty-one who actually elected the doge. None could be elected but by at least twenty-five votes out of forty-one, nine votes out of eleven or twelve, or seven votes out of nine electors.
In a ceremonial formula for consulting the Braavosians and then the Sinopians, when a new doge is chosen, before he takes the oath of investiture he is presented to the people with the formula: "This is your doge, if it pleases you."
The burial of a Doge is held in the Temple of Poseidon and such despite the religion of the Doge. It is a traditional practice with no religious links whatsoever. 146 Doges are currently buried in the Temple while 38 were exiled or left Sinope and were buried in a foreign country.
Council of Ten
The Council of Ten is the third legislature of the Sinopian Parliament. It is part of the essentially bicameral Sinopian legislature, representing the noble families of Braavos, the other legislative bodies being the Senate of the Republic and to a lesser extant the Agora. The Council is composed of ten members, elected for one-year terms by the respective ten most powerful and noble ancient families of Braavos. The 10 families are determined by the Golden Book of Sinope. The election of the family representatives is to the discretion of the respective families. The Council of Ten internal election make national news every years. The Golden Book is the formal directory of nobles in the Sinope Republic. The current members of the Council of Ten are as follow:
- Georgios Dimas (Male)
- Maria Mitsotakis (Female)
- Konstantinos Papakonstantinou (Male)
- Eleni Papandreou (Female)
- Aikaterini Theotokis (Female)
- Dimitrios Trikoupis (Male)
- Vasiliki Tsaldaris (Female)
- Angeliki Rallis (Female)
- Katerina Venizelos (Female) – Little Sister of Doge Diogenes
- Ioannis Zaimis(Male)
Senate of the Republic
The Senate of the Republic is composed of 120 members of whom 60 are elected by the population for one year with 1 senator representing each region of Sinope. The 60 others are elected by the Council of Ten for one year as well. The Senate is a legislature and consists of the main section of the upper house of the tricameral Parliament of Sinope, the other lower house being the Agora. The Senate's competences are numerous and consists of day-to-day legislation. If a bill is passed by the Senate but is voted down by the Agora, the Senate can override the decision of the Agora by a two-thirds vote in the affirmative. The Senate has also total control over budget and monetary laws.
The Agora is the lower house of the tricameral legislature of Sinope. It consists of 2,000 members directly elected by the population. It has less powers than the Senate and usually simply approves or not laws passed in the Senate.
The College is the official decision-making body of the Doge's government. Its members head the different ministries of the Sinope Republic. College ministers, are selected primarily from the elected members of Agora, and also from the Senate, by the Doge. College ministers are heads of government departments, mostly with the office of "Minister of State for [function, e.g. Foreign Affairs]". The collective co-ordinating function of the College is reinforced by the statutory position that all the Ministers of State jointly hold the same office, and can exercise the same powers. Normally, the Senate must confirm the appointment of a College member; this is but one of the many checks and balances built into the Sinopian system. The Senate may also remove a cabinet member through a usually difficult impeachment process.
Under the doctrine of separation of powers, the Lordship is part of the executive branch. Lordship members, known as lords, are responsible for advising the Doge on areas within their purview. They also have veto power if a majority of the Lordship is against a decision of the Doge. They are appointed by and serve at the pleasure of the Council of Ten and are therefore strongly subordinate to the families that chose them as they can be replaced at any time. There are a total of 10 lords in the Lordship, with one member of the Council of Ten naming one lord.
Sinopian law is divided into two principal areas: private law and public law. Private law includes, in particular, civil law and criminal law. Public law includes, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law. However, in practical terms, Sinopian law comprises three principal areas of law: civil law, criminal law, and administrative law. Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past (criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited). While administrative law is often a subcategory of civil law in many countries, it is completely separated in Sinope and each body of law is headed by a specific supreme court: ordinary courts (which handle criminal and civil litigation) are headed by the Court of Cassation and administrative courts are headed by the Council of State. Sinope does not recognise religious law as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions.
Sinope's attitude towards freedom of religion has historically been simple and clear as expressed in the motto of the capital: "All religions are honored in Braavos". Freedom of religion has always been guaranteed by the constitutional rights set forth in the numerous Constitutions of Sinope. It is also the first secular state of Adonia and operates under open secularism. Sinope has never outlawed prostitution, drugs or dueling, but has changed its policies towards them on numerous occasions and are today highly regulated activities. The age of consent for sexual intercourse is at 14 years old and the legal age for majority and adulthood is at 16. Sinope has never had any laws restricting sexual orientation, therefore Sinope holds one of the largest LGBT community in the world.
The law is enforced in Sinope by several government entities. The Sinopian Police Service is a Government agency concerned with police matters. The National Task Force is a national SWAT unit within the Ministry of State Security (YAK). The Ministry of State Security's responsibilities are within and outside the country and include counter-intelligence, internal and border security, counter-terrorism, and surveillance as well as investigating some other types of grave crimes.
Sinope has had a long lasting history of imperialism and colonialism characterised by its commitment to commercial dominance in the Alcadean Sea and Althena. As of 2012, it maintains diplomatic relations with 200 countries and has 144 embassies around Adonia. The foreign policy is determined by the Doge and implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Sinope.
The post-Great Adonain War period has seen a diversification of relations, with Sinope seeking to strengthen its regional presence in Western Althena, the Central Althena and the Alcadean, as well as its historical claim of Kariko. Sinope has had good ties with former Relastovan Empire nations as it has funded the struggle to dissolve it. It has particularly good relations with Relastova and Sameshira. As of its neighbours, Bruellen's strong ties with Sinope include cooperation on scientific and educational endeavors and the two states remain strong economic and military partners. Historically part of the Imperial Alliance during the Great Adonian War, the relations with Bruellen have always been driven by economic goals and political closeness.
In Euphemia, Sinope has had close ties with Kuyrut as it supports Sinopian claims on Kariko and Sinope supports Kuyrut claims on Brensland. Among other Euphemian nations, Oxacmela and Shayden are among Sinope's largest non-Althenan trading partners. Acadia, Folland and Mitron have been characterised by Doge Diogenes as threats to Adonian security and relations with these countries have always been low.
In recent years, Sinope has focused its diplomatic goals to improve relations with Eastern Althenan and Itzamnan nations, mainly with economic ties. Relations with Balisca since its independence from Insulo have always been positive and Balisca is considered as Sinope's largest partner in Itzamna.
Historically, Sinope was born inside the Calibrian Empire and declared independence in 612, causing the fall of the Calibrian Empire. Since the foundation of the Republic of Sinope, both countries have been in several wars, political and territorial conflicts, and tensions. Nevertheless, the bilateral relations of Calibria and Sinope is the oldest standing diplomatic mission between two sovereign states on Adonia, currently lasting 1,401 years. Despite their conflictual relation, the two countries never completely cut diplomatic ties with each others and have always maintained a good level of trade. Instead, they often severed and suspended diplomatic missions, especially during times of war. The Kariko conflict constitutes one of the main reasons for the fluctuating course of Sinopian-Calibrian relations. There is a series of interconnected problems between Sinope and Calibria, mostly emanating from the political status of the territory of Kariko.
The Sinopian military is divided into the Ground Forces, Navy, and Air Force. There are also two independent arms of service: Cyber Warfare Forces and Aerospace Defence Forces. In 2013, the military had about 545,000 active troops. Sinope also has around 350,000 Reserve Force totaling around 900,000 trained troops. Sinope has historically developed its own military industry. Since the Relastovan Revolution, Sinope has heavily co-operated with Relastova to produce its military equipment. The nation's military relies heavily on high-tech weapons systems designed and manufactured in Sinope as well as some foreign imports, mainly from Bruellen.
Following the Great Adonian War, Sinope declared itself a neutral state. The country has an increasing military partnership with Relastova. Common use of naval bases in the Alcadean Sea and joint air defense efforts are the most intense branches of such cooperation. The Sinopian military is currently deployed in Bergenstein. Sinope is widely believed to possess nuclear weapons as well as chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. Sinope has not signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and maintains a policy of deliberate ambiguity toward its nuclear capabilities.
Sinope is currently trying to modernise its military by improving its aerial capabilities while reducing its naval power. New military equipments are being developed by companies such as Aeolus and other state-owned defense companies. The Aeolus PAK FA is a newly built stealth multi-role military aircraft currently under production by Aeolus and undergoing tests in the Sinopian Air Force. The Republic is also focusing on establishing a more modern anti-ballistic technology and system. Aeolus is also working on its Su-40 concept plane, that would technically become the most maneuverable and fast fighter aircraft.
Sinope is a unitary state divided in 60 administrative regions and over 400 municipalities which hold certain powers at the local level. Administrative regions are used to organise the delivery of government services. They are also the basis of organization for regional conferences of elected officers. Regions lack separate legislative authority and therefore cannot write their own statutory law. They levy their own taxes and, in return, receive a decreasing part of their budget from the central government, which gives them a portion of the taxes it levies. They also have considerable budgets managed by a regional council made up of representatives voted into office in regional elections. A region's primary responsibility is to build and furnish high schools. In addition, regions have considerable discretionary power over infrastructural spending, e.g., education, public transit, universities and research, and assistance to business owners. This has meant that the heads of wealthy regions such as Braavos the Great can be high-profile positions. The latter is the only region that is also a municipality. Proposals to give regions limited legislative autonomy have met with considerable resistance.
Sinope has a developed economy and has been playing a special role in the Althenan economy for many centuries. Since the 10th century, shipping, fishing, trade, and banking have been leading sectors of the Sinopian economy. Sinope is one of Adonia's 10 leading exporting countries. Foodstuffs form the largest industrial sector. Other major industries include chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, and tourism.
The country is well known for its influential and innovative business economic sector, an industrious and competitive agricultural sector (Sinope is Adonia's largest wine producer), and for its creative and high-quality automobile, industrial, appliance and fashion design. Sinope's closest trade ties are with the other countries of Western Althena, with whom it conducts about 60% of its total trade. Its largest trade partners, in order of market share, are Relastova (14.33%), Bruellen (10.03%), and Trentannia (6.17%).
The shipping industry is a key element of Sinopian economic activity dating back to ancient times. Today, shipping is one of the country's most important industries. The Sinopian merchant navy is the largest in the world at 19.2% of the world's total capacity, in 2010. The total tonnage of the country's merchant fleet is 220 million dwt, ranked 1st in the world. In terms of total number of ships, the Sinopian Merchant Navy stands at 2nd worldwide, with 4,150 ships (1,541 of which are registered in Sinope whereas the rest 2,609 in other ports). In terms of ship categories, Sinope ranks first in both tankers and dry bulk carriers, second in the number of containers, and third in other ships.
Sinope is among the 5 most visited countries in the world, receiving an average of 62 million foreign tourists each year. Tourism is playing an increasingly important role in Sinope's economy, contributing to about 9% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Tourist hotspots in Sinope are Braavos, the Aegean peninsula, Tyr, Lindos and the Atlas Mountains, but the Sinopian government continues to promote and develop new tourist destinations, such as the Rhodope ranges, Katerini, and Apollonia. Braavos is the Althenan city which attracts the most tourists (with 17 million foreign visitors in 2012). Tyr was the tourist destination which grew most (11.9%) in 2012, surpassing the Aegean peninsula (in 2011), as the third most visited destination.
Most tourists in Sinope are Trentannian-, Matinendan-, Insulonian-, Relastovan- or Bruellan-origin visitors, travel by low cost airliners, and not only seek sun and beaches, but increasingly search for cultural, gastronomic, environmental or nautical experiences (or travel for reasons of business).
In 2010, Lonely Planet ranked Sinope's eastern and third-largest city of Myr as the world's third-best party town worldwide, comparable to other cities such as Deira and La Plata. In 2011, Santorini was voted as "The World's Best Island" in Travel + Leisure. Its neighboring island Mykonos, came in fifth in the Alcadean category.
As a developed country highly dependent on tourism, Sinope offers a wide variety of tourist facilities. Tourism infrastructure in Sinope has been greatly improved since the 2004 Braavos Olympic Games and continues to expand with a number of important projects particularly in areas of less mass-tourism.
Sinope has considerable resources of wind and river power, the two most cost-effective renewable sources. Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a trend towards the development of a renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use of fossil fuel resources. In 2004, the world's largest solar power plant at that date, the Adamas Photovoltaic Power Station, began operating near Adamas, in the east, while the world's first commercial wave power farm, the Matraki Wave Farm, opened near Ragousa (2006). By the end of 2009, 66% of the country's electrical production were derived from hydroelectric dams, while 29% was from nuclear power plants, and 6% by wind energy. As of June 2010, electricity exports had outnumbered imports. In the period between January and May 2010, 80% of the national production of energy came from renewable sources.
Sinope's national energy transmission company, Sinergy, uses sophisticated modeling to predict weather, especially wind patterns, and computer programs to calculate energy from the various renewable-energy plants. Before the solar/wind revolution, Sinope had generated electricity from hydropower plants on its rivers for decades. New programs combine wind and water: wind-driven turbines pump water uphill at night, the most blustery period; then the water flows downhill by day, generating electricity, when consumer demand is highest. Sinope’s distribution system is also now a two-way street. Instead of just delivering electricity, it draws electricity from even the smallest generators, like rooftop solar panels. The government aggressively encouraged such contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy rooftop-generated solar electricity.
There are 1,000,960 km of roads in Sinope. The Sinopian motorway network consists largely of toll roads, except around large cities and in parts of the west. It is a network totalling around 13,000 km of motorways operated by private companies. It has the seventh largest highway network in the world, trailing only Shayden, Asmiriva, Relastova, Acadia, Bruellen and Trentannia.
Sinope currently counts 30,500 km of major trunk roads and state-owned motorways. By way of comparison, the regional roads network cover a total distance of 365,000 km. The main trunk road network reflects the centralising tradition of Sinope: the majority of them leave the gates of Braavos the Great. To ensure an effective road network, new roads not serving the Braavos region were created.
With hundreds of islands, Sinope has many seaports, 30 of which are international. The port of Braavos is one of the busiest in Althena and is the main cargo port of the country, followed by the ports of Lindos, Lyr, Tyr, Skala, and Myr. Sinope has more than 440 ports that serve passengers and cargo. Sinope's port infrastructure is being constantly upgraded and improved to meet the needs of cargo shipping, security concerns, and the country’s visitors.
Approximately 75% of freight enters the Sinope Republic by sea (60% by value). Ferries, both passenger only and passengers and vehicles, operate within Sinope across rivers and stretches of water and the Alcadean Sea. In Braavos the Great, water transport has historically been the main mean of transportation and still is nowadays in the borough of Braavos. Passenger ferries operate internationally to nearby countries such as Matinenda, Calibria, Sameshira, Relastova, Ugento, Severina and Lechia.
Cruise ships depart from Sinope for destinations worldwide, many heading for ports around the Alcadean, Devarnem, Sushili, Alannain, Trestä and the Sea of Kihe.
Air transport in Sinope is the commercial carriage of passengers, freight and mail by aircraft, both within Sinope and between Sinope and the rest of the world. In the past 25 years the industry has seen continuous growth, and the demand for passenger air travel in particular is forecast to increase from the current level of 206 million passengers to 400 million in 2030. Close to half of all passengers travelling by air in Sinope currently travel via the four Braavos area airports. Outside of Braavos, Lyr Airport is by far the largest and busiest of the remaining airports, acting as a hub for the 17 million or so people who live in the Aegean peninsula and in Kariko. Regional airports have experienced the most growth in recent years, due to the success of low-cost airlines over the last decade.
Iberia is the flag carrier of Sinope, although the country has many other airlines, mostly low-cost. Trentannian and Bruellan airlines have an increasing presence in the country. Others include Porter Airlines, Aegean Airlines and CityJet.
OSE is Sinope's national state-owned railway company. OSE operates the country's national rail services, including Sinope's high-speed rail network. Its functions include operation of railway services for passengers and freight, and maintenance and signalling of rail infrastructure.
The Sinopian railway system is one of the most important parts of the infrastructure of Sinope, accounting for 30% of total passenger travel and 40% of freight travel. Sinope uses the standard 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge and has an extensive network of 26,142 km, of which 21,296 was electrified. Sinope is a member of the Althena Union of Railways.
From 1981 onwards, a newly-constructed set of high-speed railway lines linked Sinope's most populous areas with the capital, starting with Braavos-Myr. In 1994, the Kariko Bridge opened, connecting Sinope and Kariko by rail in the middle of the bridge's span. Trains, unlike road traffic, drive on the left). Metro and tramway services are not thought of as trains and usually follow road traffic in driving on the right.
All railways in Sinope are operated with the standard gauge. All rail tracks are owned by the State and all passenger trains are operated by OSE. Freight, on the other hand,
Sinope has 51,692,713 inhabitants according to 2013 government estimates. Its population density, at 120.82/km² (312.94/sq. mile), is lower than that of most Western Althenan countries. However the distribution of the population is widely uneven. The most densely populated areas are the Braavosi Valley (that accounts for almost a half of the national population) and the Aegean peninsula, while vast regions such as the Atlas and Rhodope highlands are very sparsely populated.
According to the Government of Sinope, urban areas already concentrate 84.35% of the population, while the Braavos the Great region remains the most populated one, with over 20 million inhabitants. The largest metropolitan areas in Sinope are Braavos, Myr-Lyr, and Tyr with 20.5, 5.6, and 3.1 million inhabitants respectively.
|Leading population centers of Sinope|
|Rank||Core city||City population||Region||Metropolitan Area||Metro population|
|1||Braavos||20,215,682||Braavos the Great||Braavos the Great||20,586,781|
|2||Tyr||2,601,782||Thessaly||Tyr Metropolitan Area||3,168,126|
|3||Myr||2,169,682||Aegean||Myr-Lyr Metropolitan Area||5,621,721|
|4||Lyr||1,954,411||Aegean||Myr-Lyr Metropolitan Area||5,621,721|
|5||Lindos||1,006,730||Aetolia||Lindos Metropolitan Area||1,425,682|
|6||Skala||604,848||Thessaly||Skala Metropolitan Area||1,125,681|
|7||Nea||558,067||Epirus||Nea-Mikropoli Metropolitan Area||1,252,296|
|8||Apollonia||496,682||Peloponnese||Apollonia Metropolitan Area||829,000|
|9||Thasos||472,961||Kefalonia||Thasos-Limenaria Metropolitan Area||962,000|
|10||Thermo||433,882||Corfu||Thermo Metropolitan Area||726,000|
According to the 2012 census, 59.4% of the population are regarded as ethnic Sinopians. Sinopian society is more markedly divided by social class lines, even if there is a relatively low income inequality between ethnic groups, classism can be conflated between the middle class and the aristocracy or Sinopian elite. 11.6% of the population are of White Althenan ethnic group. Of that number, the largest group is Relastovan which compromises half of that number or 5.8% of the total population of Sinope. Turkic people account for 10% of the population with Sameshirans being the most numerous with 25% of that number. 5% of the population are ethnically Kabier, mainly from Abbasid and Ankara. The black-skinned population accounts for 8% of the population, mainly from the United Vassalies, New Chandler, Zaire and Argos. 4% of the population are regarded as Eastern Althenian, with 32% of those being from Samastra. Peilans and Rokes are the most populous ethnic groups of that category with 24% and 18% of people respectively of that portion. 2% of the population of Sinope are from other ethnic groups. These include various aboriginal tribes from Euphemia, Carreon and Itzamna.
Throughout the 20th century, millions of Sinopians migrated to the Shayden, Balisca, Argos, Trentannia, Relastova, and Bruellen, creating a thriving Sinopian diaspora. Net migration started to show positive numbers from the 1970s, but until the beginning of the 1990s, the main influx was that of returning Sinopian migrants.
In 1986 legal and unauthorised immigrants totaled approximately 590,000. A study from the Alcadean Migration Observatory maintains that the 2012 census recorded 2,562,191 persons residing in Sinope without the Sinopian citizenship, constituting around 5% of total population. The majority come from Southeastern Althenan countries: Relastova (56%), Lechia (8%), while migrants from the Asmiriva comprise 10% of the total.
The greatest cluster of immigrant population are the larger urban centres, especially Braavos the Great, with 10,826,782 non-ethnic Sinopians comprising 54% of the local population. There is also a considerable number of co-ethnics that came from the Sinopian communities of Ugento, Argos and the former Relastovan Empire.
Sinope, together with Matinenda and Calibria, faces a large influx of illegal immigrants trying to enter Northwestern Althena. Illegal immigrants entering Sinope mostly do so from the border with Kariko. In 2012, the majority of illegal immigrants entering Sinope came from Relastova, followed by Forgia and Asmiriva. Since 2012, extensive day-to-day police operations (called "Xenios Zeus") take place in Braavos and other major Sinopian cities for the detention of illegal immigrants. So far more than 80,000 illegal immigrants have been detained and thousands have been checked for their country residence status. Illegal immigrants are detained and then are sent back to their countries of origin.
The first textual evidence of the Sinopian language dates back to 15th century BC and the Linear B script which is associated with the Mycenaean Civilization. Sinopian was a widely spoken lingua franca in the Alcadean world and beyond during Classical Antiquity, and would eventually become the official parlance of the Sinope Republic.
During the 19th and 20th centuries there was a major dispute known as the Sinopian language question, on whether the official language of Sinope should be the archaic Katharevousa, created in the 19th century and used as the state and scholarly language, or the Dimotiki, the form of the Sinopian language which evolved naturally from Ancient Sinopian and was the language of the people. The dispute was finally resolved in 1920, when Dimotiki was made the only official variation of the Sinopian language, and Katharevousa fell to disuse. Sinope is today relatively homogeneous in linguistic terms, with a large majority of the native population using Sinopian as their first language.
The Muslim minority in Braavos and other regions, which amounts to approximately 10% of the total population, consists of speakers of Turkic languages, Kabier, Forgian and Romani. Further minority languages have traditionally been spoken by regional population groups in various parts of the country, especially in the cosmopolitan capital of Braavos. Their use has decreased radically in the course of the 20th century through assimilation with the Sinopian-speaking majority and public services provided only in Sinopian. Today they are only maintained by the older generations and are on the verge of extinction or newly arrived immigrants. This goes for the Arvanites, an Ugentian-speaking group mostly located in the rural areas around the capital Braavos the Great, and for the Aromanians and Moglenites, also known as Vlachs, whose language is closely related to Calibrian and who used to live scattered across several areas of mountainous eastern Sinope. Members of these groups ethnically identify as Sinopians and are today all at least bilingual in Sinopian.
Near the northern Sinopian borders there are also some Germanic–speaking groups, most of whose members identify ethnically as Sinopians. Their dialects can be linguistically classified as forms of either Trentannian or Bruellan. In the northwest of the country, there is a Matinendan-speaking minority which identifies itself as Sinopian. The Jewish community in Sinope traditionally spoke Ladino (Judeo-Insulonian), today maintained only by a small group of a few thousand speakers.
The Constitution of Sinope guarantees the freedom of religion. The motto of the capital and largest city, Braavos, has always been "All gods are honored in Braavos". As such, Braavos became a city of pilgrims from around Adonia. Sinope has the largest Muslim religious population of any Western Althenan nation. The faith of the Old Gods is the most common religion practiced in Sinope, followed by Islam, Christianity, Judaism and many smaller religions.
According to the 2012 census, 51.3% of adults identified themselves as Old Gods worshiper. Islam, at 17.9%, was the second largest group. The total reporting Christians was 4.7%. Other religions include Judaism (1.7%), Shakyan (0.7%) and Hinduism (0.3%). The census also reported that 16.1% of Sinopians described themselves as agnostic, atheist, or simply having no religion. There are also Baha'i, Sikh, Jain, Shinto, Confucian, Taoist, Druid, humanist and deist communities.
As with other Western countries, Sinope is becoming less religious. Irreligion is growing rapidly among Sinopians under 30. Polls show that overall Sinopian confidence in organised religion is declining, and that younger Sinopians in particular are becoming increasingly irreligious.
The Athena Mosquee is the largest mosquee in Sinope and Western Althena. Many religious communities in Sinope are older than the nation itself. Before the foundation of the Republic, freedom of religion wasn't guaranteed and under the Calibrian Empire, Jews and Muslims were persecuted. Even during the times of the Sinope Republic and still nowadays, some religious communities are persecuted. This was the case during the reign of certain doges who established ghettos for Jews and Muslims in Braavos, for example.
Compulsory education in Sinope comprises primary schools (Δημοτικό Σχολείο, Dimotikó Scholeio) and gymnasium (Γυμνάσιο). Nursery schools (Παιδικός σταθμός, Paidikós Stathmós) are popular but not compulsory. Kindergartens (Νηπιαγωγείο, Nipiagogeío) are now compulsory for any child above 4 years of age. Children start primary school aged 6 and remain there for six years. Attendance at gymnasia starts at age 12 and lasts for three years.
Sinope's post-compulsory secondary education consists of two school types: unified upper secondary schools (Γενικό Λύκειο, Genikό Lykeiό) and technical–vocational educational schools (Τεχνικά και Επαγγελματικά Εκπαιδευτήρια, "TEE"). Post-compulsory secondary education also includes vocational training institutes (Ινστιτούτα Επαγγελματικής Κατάρτισης, "IEK") which provide a formal but unclassified level of education. As they can accept both Gymnasio (lower secondary school) and Lykeio (upper secondary school) graduates, these institutes are not classified as offering a particular level of education.
Public higher education "Highest Educational Institutions" (Ανώτατα Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα, Anótata Ekpaideytiká Idrýmata, "ΑΕΙ") consists of two parallel sectors: the University sector (Universities, Polytechnics, Fine Arts Schools, the Open University) and the Technological sector (Technological Education Institutions (TEI) and the School of Pedagogic and Technological Education). There are also State Non-University Tertiary Institutes offering vocationally oriented courses of shorter duration (2 to 3 years) which operate under the authority of other Ministries. Students are admitted to these Institutes according to their performance at national level examinations taking place after completion of the third grade of Lykeio. Additionally, students over twenty-two years old may be admitted to the Sinopian Open University through a form of lottery. The Capodistrian University of Myr is the oldest university in Adonia.
The Sinopian education system also provides special kindergartens, primary and secondary schools for people with special needs or difficulties in learning. Specialist gymnasia and high schools offering musical, theological and physical education also exist.
Sinope has a universal healthcare system. As of 2012, total health expenditures were equal to 5.8 percent of gross domestic product. Sinope has a comprehensive universal health care system, which covers medical examinations, any surgical interventions, and any post-operator medical care, and provides free or subsidised medicine for a range of diseases. The state is obliged to fund public hospitals and clinics. The Sinopian Ministry of Health is in charge of administrating and funding the system.
The most common causes of death are cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Transmissible diseases, such as tuberculosis, syphilis or viral hepatitis, are more common than in the rest of northwestern Althena. The incidence of HIV/AIDS is less than 0.1%. In 2010, Sinope had 1,028 state hospitals and another 60 private. For each 1,000 people, there are 9.2 hospital beds available.
Sinope also has a professional emergency response unit which operates at major emergencies. It operates independently from the regular emergency response services, but it can be dialed and asked for by calling 112. Sinope has one of the highest success rates for organs transplantation surgeries in Adonia. As of 2012, Sinope has 506,258 medical staff, of which 122,525 are doctors, 28,772 dentists and 36,511 pharmacists.
Sinope is located at a meeting point of the eastern countries of the world and the western countries and this affects its culture. Thus the lifestyle of the people is influenced by diverse traditions and practices, which further affects the culture of the land. Sinope is known to have a great history. The country had only been under the occupation of Calibrians and has been the refuge since its independence of numerous persecuted people and slaves, as slavery has always been illegal in Sinope. All this history has had an impact upon the Culture and Society of Sinope. Sinopian is the native language of the land. Sinopians are religious people and there are a number of important traditions that forms an important part of the culture and lifestyle of the Sinopians.
Sinope Society consists of close knit families. There are other important social organizations in Sinope that have gradually evolved from the idea of family. These organization works for the social benefit and welfare of the people of Sinope. The institution of marriage also plays an important role in Sinope Society. Tradition and religious practices forms a core of the social lifestyle of the Sinopians. Women in Sinope society are given great importance and are provided with good educational facilities. Loyalty to the family comes before other social relationships, even business. Nepotism is considered a good thing, since it implies that employing people one knows and trusts is of primary importance. Sinopians are a people who retain a sense of formality when dealing with each other, which is displayed in the form of extreme politeness. In Sinopian society appearance is very important, especially in the cities. People are fashion conscious and believe that clothes indicate social standing and success. They take great pride in wearing good fabrics and clothes of the best standard they can afford. Sinope is a culture that respects hierarchy. Society and business are highly stratified and vertically structured. People respect authority and look to those above them for guidance and decision-making. Rank is important, and those senior to you in rank must always be treated with respect. This need to know who is in charge leads to an authoritarian approach to decision- making and problem solving. In business, power and authority generally reside with one person who makes decisions with little concern about consensus building with their subordinates.
Most western philosophical traditions began in Ancient Sinope in the 6th century BC. The first philosophers are called "Presocratics," which designates that they came before Socrates, whose contributions mark a turning point in western thought. The Presocratics were from the western or the western colonies of Sinope and only fragments of their original writings survive, in some cases merely a single sentence.
A new period of philosophy started with Socrates. Like the Sophists, he rejected entirely the physical speculations in which his predecessors had indulged, and made the thoughts and opinions of people his starting-point. Aspects of Socrates were first united from Plato, who also combined with them many of the principles established by earlier philosophers, and developed the whole of this material into the unity of a comprehensive system.
Aristotle of Stagira, the most important disciple of Plato, shared with his teacher the title of the greatest philosopher of antiquity. But while Plato had sought to elucidate and explain things from the supra-sensual standpoint of the forms, his pupil preferred to start from the facts given us by experience. Except from these three most significant Sinopian philosophers other known schools of Sinopian philosophy from other founders during ancient times were Stoicism, epicureanism, Skepticism and Neoplatonism.
Braavosi culture has created a unique form of sword fighting, called Water Dancing. The style is a refined form of fencing in which the practitioner stands sideways and wields a slender blade. Dueling has never been outlawed although it is badly seen in some areas of the country. Most duels occur in Braavos and older cities like Lindos, Tyr, Myr and Ragousa. The duel is based on a code of honour. Duels are fought not so much to kill the opponent as to gain "satisfaction", that is, to restore one's honour by demonstrating a willingness to risk one's life for it, and as such the tradition of duelling is originally reserved for the male members of nobility; however, in the modern era it extended to those of the upper classes generally. At the choice of the offended party, the duel could be fought to a number of conclusions:
- To first blood, in which case the duel would be ended as soon as one man was wounded, even if the wound was minor.
- Until one man was so severely wounded as to be physically unable to continue the duel.
- To the death (or "το υπερβολικό"), in which case there would be no satisfaction until one party was mortally wounded.
Duel in Sinope is only legal if it is done with fists or knives and it has to be two witnesses, one for each party. Sinope is one of the only remaining country in Adonia to have not made illegal dueling.
At the beginning of Sinopian literature stand the two monumental works of Homer: the Iliad and the Odyssey. Though dates of composition vary, these works were fixed around 800 BC or after. In the classical period many of the genres of western literature became more prominent. Lyrical poetry, odes, pastorals, elegies, epigrams; dramatic presentations of comedy and tragedy; historiography, rhetorical treatises, philosophical dialectics, and philosophical treatises all arose in this period. The two major lyrical poets were Sappho and Pindar. The Classical era also saw the dawn of drama.
Of the hundreds of tragedies written and performed during the classical age, only a limited number of plays by three authors have survived: those of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. The surviving plays by Aristophanes are also a treasure trove of comic presentation, while Herodotus and Thucydides are two of the most influential historians in this period. The greatest prose achievement of the 4th century was in philosophy with the works of the three great philosophers.
Modern Sinopian literature refers to literature written in common Modern Sinopian, emerging from the 11th century. The Myrian Renaissance poem Erotokritos is undoubtedly the masterpiece of this period of Sinopian literature. It is a verse romance written around 1600 by Vitsentzos Kornaros (1553–1613). Later, during the period of Sinopian enlightenment (Diafotismos), writers such as Adamantios Korais and Rigas Feraios prepared with their works many reforms in the Sinopian society.
Leading literary figures of modern Sinopian include Dionysios Solomos, Andreas Kalvos, Angelos Sikelianos, Emmanuel Rhoides, Kostis Palamas, Penelope Delta, Yannis Ritsos, Alexandros Papadiamantis, Nikos Kazantzakis, Andreas Embeirikos, Kostas Karyotakis, Gregorios Xenopoulos, Constantine P. Cavafy, and Demetrius Vikelas. Two Sinopian authors have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature: George Seferis in 1963 and Odysseas Elytis in 1979.
The Sinopian cuisine is famous for its good quality products and the amazing taste of its food and wines. Some dishes are the same everywhere in Sinope, whereas some others are local culinary specialties. The same dishes can be cooked differently or with different ingredients depending on the region. Many products are characteristic of Sinope, including various types of cheese (feta, metsovone and formaella), virgin olive oil, capper, potatoes, citrus fruits and others like honey, wine, spices, nutes and more. Traditional recipes of Sinope are usually easy but require special products that are grown in the Sinopian land. Baklava, moussaka, pastichio, gemista and kleftiko are the most famous Sinopian recipes. The Sinopian cuisine also has many influences from the Etruscan, Matinendan and Calibrian cuisine.
Sweet desserts such as galaktoboureko, and drinks such as ouzo, metaxa and a variety of wines including retsina. Sinopian cuisine differs widely from different parts of the mainland and from island to island and east to west. It uses some flavorings more often than other Alcadean cuisines: oregano, mint, garlic, onion, dill and bay laurel leaves. Other common herbs and spices include basil, thyme and fennel seed. Many Sinopian recipes, especially in the northern parts of the country, use "sweet" spices in combination with meat, for example cinnamon and cloves in stews.
Sinopian vocal music extends far back into ancient times where mixed-gender choruses performed for entertainment, celebration and spiritual reasons. Instruments during that period included the double-reed aulos and the plucked string instrument, the lyre, especially the special kind called a kithara. Music played an important role in the education system during ancient times. Boys were taught music from the age of six. Later influences from the Calibrian Empire, Middle East, and the Relastovan Empire also had effect on Sinopian music.
The Sinopian music is of unbelievable diversity due to the creative Sinopian assimilation of different influences of the Eastern and Western culture of Althena. Music in Sinope has a long history dating from the ancient times, during which poetry, dancing and music were inseparable and played an important part in Sinope's everyday life. Because of its numerous minorities, Sinope has numerous musical genres, including Trentannian-originating Blues and Jazz, Baliscan Tango, and Euphemian pop music. Sinope has participated in USong since its creation.
In the 20th century, Sinopian composers have had a significant impact on the development of avant garde and modern classical music, with figures such as Iannis Xenakis, Nikos Skalkottas, and Dimitri Mitropoulos achieving international prominence. At the same time, composers and musicians such as Mikis Theodorakis, Manos Hatzidakis, Eleni Karaindrou, Vangelis and Demis Roussos garnered an international following for their music, which include famous film scores such as Zorba the Sinopian, Serpico, Never on Sunday, Shayden Shayden, Eternity and a Day, Chariots of Fire, among others. Sinopian-Shaydian composers known for their film scores include Yanni and Basil Poledouris. Notable Sinopian opera singers and classical musicians of the 20th and 21st century include Maria Callas, Nana Mouskouri, Mario Frangoulis, Leonidas Kavakos, Dimitris Sgouros and others.
Ancient Sinopian architecture is best known through its temples and theatres. Sinope boasts several scores of medieval castles, as well as the ruins of several villas and forts from the period of Calibrian occupation. Modern Sinopian architecture follow the most advanced trends seen in Alcadean mainstream architecture with no constraints, though preserving some of its singular characteristics. The Karolis architecture and the Sinopian pavement are two typical elements of Sinopian-style architecture. Sinope is perhaps best known for its distinctive Ghotic architecture with its rich, intricate designs attributed to Sinope's Age of Colonialism. Another type of architecture is the Sinopian Baroque. The creations of Sinopian artists can be seen on the altars of gilded panels and tiles, blue and white, that adorn churches and temples, halls, staircases and gardens. The caracteristic Karolis architecture is essentially an extension of the traditional Calibrian architecture where large buildings were of worship or public affairs and could accommodate large crowds. Thereafter, especially during the period when increasing monasteries and where buildings tend to be used by a limited clientele (officials and dignitaries) rather than by the crowds, buildings take smaller dimensions at the same time as the plan takes the form of a Sinopian cross and the focus is on or domes and vaults.
Prostitution and drugs
Prostitution in Sinope is legal and regulated. Operating a brothel is also legal. In the last few years, a significant number of brothels and "windows" have been closed because of suspected criminal activity. Kolonaki, the largest and best-known red-light district in Braavos, is a destination for international sex tourism. Sinope is one the few countries where prostitution has never been criminalized and is legal to this day.
Drugs have never been made illegal in Sinope, but the State tries to discourage the use of hard drugs. Drugs are subject to strict regulation by the authorities, especially considering sale. Smoking cafés are common in most Sinopian cities. These cafés are labeled with the products they are selling, namely shisha cafés of Kabier origins, weed cafés, opium cafés, etc.
The most popular sport in Sinope is association football. The Sinope National Football Team has been participating in UFFA championships since its creation and is currently ranked ?? in Adonia. Other popular team sports in Sinope include tennis, basketball and rugby. The Italian national basketball team's best results were gold at Althenanbasket 1995 and AlthenanBasket 1999, as well as silver at the Olympics in 2000. The Sinopian League is widely considered one of the most competitive in Althena. Rugby union enjoys a good level of popularity, especially in the north of the country, near its border with Trentannia. Sinope's national team competes in the Six Nations Championship, and is a regular at the Rugby Adonian Cup. Sinope ranks as a tier-one nation by the Adonian Rugby Board.