Shayden

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Shayden Federal Republic
Shayden
Flag
Motto: "Aequalitas, Libertatem, Felicitatem"
Anthem: "Love the Free and Brave Shayden"
Shayden's Location on Euphemia
Capital Smith City
Largest city Harrison City
Official languages Trentannian
Recognised national languages Trentannian,
Etruscan
Ethnic groups Shaydian 87%
Acadian 5%
Kaskaskian 4%
Ruterian 3%
Other 1%
Demonym Shaydian
Government Federal Presidential and Constitutional Republic
 -  President of Shayden Ronald Smith
 -  Vice President David Chapman
Legislature Federal Council
Independence from Trentannia
 -  Declared November 1, 1780 
 -  Recognized August 14, 1789 
Area
 -  4,865,709 km2 (2nd)
3,023,411 sq mi
Population
 -  2014 estimate 205,819,491 (3rd)
 -  2013 census 204,832,643
 -  Density 42.3/km2
82.1/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate
 -  Total §8.670 trillion (1st)
 -  Per capita §42,124 (4th)
HDI (2012) .913
very high
Currency Sents (§)
Time zone AUT -5, AUT -6, AUT -7 and AUT -8
 -  Summer (DST) AUT (UTC)
Date format dd-mm-yyyy
mm-dd-yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +1
Internet TLD .shy

Shayden, officially the Shayden Federal Republic is a Federal Presidential and Constitutional Republic consisting of 35 states. The country is situated mostly in Northern Euphemia, where its thirty five contiguous states lie between the Dacian and South Cilician Oceans, Marqualis, Oxacmela, and Recebe Islands to the north and Acadia, Folland, Ivouixkaw, Kaskaskia, and Kuyrut to the south. The country also possesses several territories in the North and South Dacian Ocean. At 4.9 million square kilometers (2.5 million mi sq) and with over 205 million people, Shayden is the second largest country in landmass and third in population.

Shayden was founded in 1609 by Étruscan explorers. In 1779, Trentannia taxed its Euphemia colonies to pay debts from a recent war, which outraged many Euphemians. In 1780, Shayden along with Acadia declared themselves independent from Trentannia, and started the Colonie's War. After 9 years, Shayden and Acadia became independent when the Treaty of Erikkson was signed. To this day Shayden and Acadia are very close allies.

The Great Adonian War confirmed the country's status as a global military power. Shayden emerged from the Great Adonian War as the first world super power. Shayden's economy is the world's largest national economy, with an estimated 2013 GDP of §8.67 trillion (22% of nominal global GDP and over 19% of global GDP at purchasing-power parity). Per capita income is the world's fourth-highest. The country accounts for 32% of global military spending, and is a leading economic, political, and influential force in the world.

History

Etymology

The modern name Shayden came from the Native Euphemians who originally colonized the lands. The term "Shayden" can be translated to: "The Land of Opportunity" in Algonquian.

Prehistory

Shayden was founded in 1502 by Étruscan explorers. Since then, it has attracted immigrants from all of western Althena, particularly Étrusque and Trentannia.

Colonies War

In 1779, Trentannia taxed its Euphemia colonies to pay debts from a recent war. This outraged many Euphemians. In 1780, Acadia and Shayden declared themselves independent from Trentannia, and started the Colonies' War. After 9 years, Acadia and Shayden became independent when the Treaty of Erikkson was signed. This treaty ceded all land west of the Shaydian colonies to Shayden. Acadia and Shayden have remained close allies every since the Colonies War came to an end and independence was accomplished.

Great Adonian War

During the GAW, Shayden was a huge supplier, and was a major allied force. It played a vital role giving supplies to allies and sending troops to West Althena, while in partnership with Acadia. After the GAW, Shayden became very nationalist, and a new flag was introduced. Companies that were established before the flag change have the privilege of bearing the old flag. While it is not illegal for a post-1958 incorporated company to bear the flag, it is seen as disrespectful.

Modern Day

File:Flag of Shayden Colony.png
Shayden's Colony Flag, which was used from 1780 until pre-1958, when it was replaced by the current flag. Companies that were established before the flag change have the privilege of bearing the old flag to this day.

Today, Shayden is a very successful nation with large influence upon other nations, the world's strongest military, and an excellent healthcare system. Shayden is progressing faster than almost any other nation in the world, slowly ending dependency on nonrenewable resources, fighting for human rights inside its nation and across the world, and preserving Social Democracy within the country.

Geography, Climate, and Environmental

Shayden is the second largest country in the world, owning 4,700,882 km2 (2,920,990 sq mi). Yannover is the largest state at 255,101 km2 (158,512 sq mi). The smallest, West Rabanastre, is only 36,723 km2 (22,819 sq mi).

Shayden, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. Climates range from Arid and Alcadean in the north to Marine West Coast, Humid Sub-Tropical, and Humid Continental in the south. The climate is arid in the east, mid-west is semi-arid, Alacadean on the west coast, and marine west coast climate on the west coast.

The coastal plain of the Dacian seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests. Shayden's ecology is considered "megadiverse": about 17,000 species of vascular plants occur in contiguous Shayden. Shayden is home to more than 400 mammal, 750 bird, and 500 reptile and amphibian species. About 91,000 insect species have been described.

The Endangered Species Act of 1969 protects threatened and endangered species and their habitats, which are monitored by the Shayden Wildlife Agency. There are thirty-seven national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas.

Government

States

A Shayden state is a federated state of Shayden that shares its sovereignty with the Shayden federal government. Since the admission of Yannover as a state in May 1909, there have been thirty-five Shayden states. Because of the shared sovereignty between a Shayden state and the Shayden federal government, a Shaydian is a citizen of both the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. State citizenship and residency are flexible and no government approval is required nor obtained to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders (e.g., paroled convicts and children of divorced spouses who are sharing custody).

The Shayden Constitution allocates certain powers to the federal government. It also places limitations on the federal and state governments. By ratifying the Shayden Constitution, the States transferred certain limited sovereign powers to the federal government. Under the Ninth Amendment, all powers not delegated to the federal government nor prohibited to the states are retained by the states or the people. The tasks of public safety (in the sense of controlling crime), public education, public health, transportation, and infrastructure have generally been considered primarily state responsibilities, although all of these now have significant federal funding and regulation as well.

Over time, the Shayden Constitution has been amended, and the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed. The general tendency has been toward centralization and equality, with the federal government playing a much larger role than it once did. The Shayden Federal Council may admit new states on an equal footing with existing ones; this last happened in 1909 with the admission of Yannover.

Government System

The government of the Shayden is the federal government of the constitutional republic of thirty-five states that constitute the Shayden, as well as one capitol district, and several other territories. The federal government is composed of two distinct branches: Federal Council and Executive, which powers are vested by the Shayden Constitution in the President and the federal courts.

The full name of the republic is "Shayden Federal Republic". No other name appears in the Constitution. The terms "Government of Shayden" or "Shayden Government" are often used in official documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term "Federal Government" is often used, and the term "National Government" is sometimes used.

Election Systems

Shayden Approval System

Main Article: AAS.

The Shayden Approval System (Also known as the Alternate Approval System) is a single-winner voting system used for presidential elections. Electors may “Approve” or “Disapprove” of as many of the candidates as the elector wishes, additionally a check-box for “No Opinion” is also added. An approval is a +1 vote for the candidate, disapproval is a -1 for a candidate, and no-opinion votes have no effects on a candidate’s tally. Each elector may check one box beside a candidate and more than one check is ignored from the tally. The winner is the candidate with the highest number of votes.

Mixed-Member Proportional

Main Article: MMP.

Members of the federal council are elected in a system that gives each voter 2 votes. The voter's first vote is cast towards their candidate of choice. The second vote goes to the voter's political party of choice. The result is a council that accurately represents the actual preferences of the voters to maintain representative proportionality.

Military

The Shayden Armed Forces are the military forces of Shayden. They consist of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. Shayden has a strong tradition of civilian control of the military. The President is the military's overall head, and helps form military policy with the Shayden Defense Agency (SDA). The SDA is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and Cabinet member. The Defense Secretary is second in the military's chain of command, just below the President, and serves as the principal assistant to the President in all SDA-related matters. To coordinate military action with diplomacy, the President has an advisory National Security Council headed by a National Security Adviser. Leadership is provided by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Shayden military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. Shayden Armed Forces as a whole possess large quantities of advanced and powerful equipment, along with widespread placement of forces around the world, giving them significant capabilities in both defense and power projection. All of the branches work together during operations and joint missions, under the Unified Combatant Commands, under the authority of the Secretary of Defense.

Economy

Shayden has a capitalist mixed economy, which is fueled by abundant natural resources, a well-developed infrastructure, and high productivity. According to the International Monetary Fund, the Shayden GDP of §8.6 trillion constitutes 22% of the gross world product at market exchange rates and over 19% of the gross world product at purchasing power parity (PPP). The country ranks seventh in the world in nominal GDP per capita and fifth in GDP per capita at PPP. The Sent is the world's primary reserve currency.

Shayden is the fifth largest importer of goods and second largest exporter. Acadia, Oxacmela, Okaiken, and Matinenda are its top trading partners.

The Harrison City Stock Exchange on Banker's Street, the world's largest stock exchange per total market capitalization of its listed companies. In 2009, the private sector was estimated to constitute 82.3% of the economy, with federal government activity accounting for 5.2% and state and local government activity (including federal transfers) the remaining 12.5%. While its economy has reached a postindustrial level of development and its service sector constitutes 63.8% of GDP, Shayden remains an industrial power. The leading business field by gross business receipts is wholesale and retail trade; by net income it is manufacturing.

Chemical products are the leading manufacturing field. Shayden is the second largest producer of oil in the world. It is the world's number one producer of electrical and nuclear energy, as well as liquid natural gas, sulfur, phosphates, and salt. While agriculture accounts for just under 2% of GDP, Shayden is the world's top producer of corn and soybeans.

In August 2010, the Shayden labor force consisted of 89.8 million people. With 15.4 million people, government is the leading field of employment. The largest private employment sector is health care and social assistance, with 13.6 million people. 42% of workers are unionized.

In 2012, Shayden ranked first in the best-country-to-be-born-in list.

Infrastructure

Technology

Shayden has been a leader in scientific research and technological innovation since the late 19th century. In 1876, Stanley Hutchinson was awarded the first Shaydian patent for the telephone. Cesar Dematteo's laboratory developed the phonograph, and the first viable movie camera. Robert Gates invented the radio. In the early 20th century, the automobile companies of Peter Simpson and Jeffery Davis popularized the assembly line.

The rise of the Imperials in the 1940s led many Western Althena scientists, including Ralf Müller, Eric Huber, and Flaviano Marcelo, to immigrate to Shayden. During the Great Adonian War, the Harrison Project developed multiple new weapons and tactics for military use. The Nationalist Age produced rapid advances in rocketry, materials science, and computers. ICP, Pear Computer, and LuxSquare refined and popularized the personal computer.

Shayden largely contributed to the APRP and its successor, the Internet. Today, 57% of research and development funding comes from the private sector. Shayden leads the world in scientific research papers and impact factor. As of April 2010, 79% of Shayden households owned at least one computer, and 67% had broadband Internet service. 86% of Shaydians also own a mobile phone as of 2011.

Energy

The Shaydian energy market is 29,000 terawatt hours per year. Energy consumption per capita is 5.7 tons of oil equivalent per year, the 16th highest rate in the world. In 2005, 23% of this energy came from petroleum, 17% from coal, and 14% from natural gas. The remainder was supplied by nuclear power and renewable energy sources. For decades, nuclear power has played a limited role relative to many other developed countries, in part due to public perception in the wake of a 1976 accident. In 2007, several applications for new nuclear plants were filed. Shayden also has an initiative to end dependencies on nonrenewable energy by providing subsidies to renewable energy companies, including Windmills, Solar Power, Switch-grass, etc.

Transport

Personal transportation is dominated by automobiles, which operate on a network of 12 million roads, including one of the world's longest highway systems. The world's second largest automobile market, Shayden has the highest rate of per-capita vehicle ownership in the world, with 801 vehicles per 1,000 people. About 38% of personal vehicles are vans, SUVs, or light trucks. The average Shaydian adult (accounting for all drivers and nondrivers) spends 50 minutes driving every day, traveling 40 km.

Mass transit accounts for 10% of total Shayden work trips. While transport of goods by rail is extensive, relatively few people use rail to travel, though transport via rail grew by almost 45% between 2000 and 2010. Also, Light rail development has increased in recent years. Bicycle usage for work commutes is minimal.

The civil airline industry is mostly privately owned and is currently minorly regulated, while most major airports are publicly owned. The three largest airlines in the world by passengers carried are Shayden-based; Freedom Air Lines is number one. Of the world's thirty busiest passenger airports, fifth-teen are in the Shayden, including the busiest, Harrison Metropolis International Airport.

Demographics

Culture

Shayden is a multicultural nation, home to a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values. Aside from Native Euphemian populations, nearly all Shaydians or their ancestors immigrated within the past five centuries. Mainstream Shaydian culture is a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of Western Althenian immigrants with influences from many other sources, such as traditions brought by Neridians. More recent immigration from Eastern Althenian and especially Itzamna has added to a cultural mix that has been described as both a homogenizing melting pot, and a heterogeneous salad bowl in which immigrants and their descendants retain distinctive cultural characteristics.

Shaydian culture is considered the most individualistic in the world. The Shaydian Dream, or the perception that Shaydians enjoy high social mobility, plays a key role in attracting immigrants. While the mainstream culture holds that Shayden is a classless society, scholars identify significant differences between the country's social classes, affecting socialization, language, and values.

The Shaydian middle and professional class has initiated many contemporary social trends such as modern feminism, environmentalism, and multiculturalism. Shaydians' self-images, social viewpoints, and cultural expectations are associated with their occupations to an unusually close degree. While Shaydians tend greatly to value socioeconomic achievement, being ordinary or average is generally seen as a positive attribute.

Same-Sex Marriage

In 2013, the Federal Council proposed a bill to fully legalize Same-Sex Marriage in all states, and approved with a majority vote.

The movement to obtain marriage rights and benefits for same-sex couples in the Shayden began in the 1970s, but became more prominent in Shayden politics in 1996 when Massinette was the first state to legalize same-sex marriage. During the 21st century, public support for legalizing same-sex marriage has grown considerably, and various national polls conducted since 2011 show that a majority of Shaydians support same-sex marriage.

Language

Trentannian is the only official language of Shayden. In 2010, about 174 million, or 85% of the population aged five years and older, spoke only Trentannian at home. Etruscan, spoken by 11% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught second language. New Oxcecmela has laws providing for the use of both Trentannian and Ensuñan, as Trenton does for Trentannian and Etruscan. Shayden's dependency grants official recognition to its native language. Ensuñan is an official language of Muerzuelo and is more widely spoken than Trentannian there.

Religion

Shayden is officially a secular nation; as the Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids the establishment of any religious governance. According to a 2007 survey, 53.2% of adults identified themselves as Trinitarian, down from 78.4% in 1990. Protestant denominations accounted for 39.8%, while Western Trinitarian, at 11.6%, was the largest individual denomination. The total reporting non-Trinitarian religions in 2007 was 24.2%, up from 7.3% in 1990. Other religions include Geusism (2.6%), Baiduism (1.7%), Islam (0.4%), Hinduism (0.4%), and Unitarian Universalism (0.3%). The survey also reported that 23.6% of Shaydians described themselves as agnostic, atheist, or simply having no religion, up from 8.6% in 1990.

There are also Baha'i, Wiccan, Druid, Jain, Native Euphemian, humanist and deist communities. Doubt about the existence of a god or gods is growing rapidly among Shaydians under 30. Polls show that overall Shaydian confidence in organized religion is declining, and that younger Shaydians in particular are becoming increasingly irreligious.

Education

Shayden public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the Shayden Department of Education. Children are required to attend school from the age of six until they turn eighteen (generally bringing them through twelfth grade, the end of high school). About 7% of children are enrolled in parochial or nonsectarian private schools. Just over 2% of children are homeschooled. Shayden has many competitive private and public institutions of higher education. According to prominent international rankings, 13 Shaydian colleges and universities are ranked among the top 20 in the world. There are also local community colleges with generally more open admission policies, shorter academic programs, and lower tuition. Of Shaydians twenty-five and older, 97.9% graduated from high school, 62.5% attended some college, 43.8% earned a bachelor's degree, and 14.2% earned graduate degrees. The basic literacy rate is approximately 99%. The United Sovereign Nations of the World assigns Shayden an Education Index of 0.994, making it tied for first with Acadia.

Health

The Shayden life expectancy of 81.4 years at birth ranks it 3rd among 200 nations. The infant mortality rate of 1.81 per thousand places Shayden 1st out of 196 countries.

Shayden is a global leader in medical innovation. Shayden solely developed or contributed significantly to 8 of the top 10 most important medical innovations since 1975 as ranked by a 2001 poll of physicians, while Althena together contributed to six. Since 1966 Shaydians have received more Nobel Prizes in Medicine than the rest of the world combined. From 1980 to 2007 four times more money was invested in public biotechnology in Shayden than in Althena.

The Shayden health-care system far outspends any other nation's, measured in both per capita spending and percentage of GDP. Health-care coverage in Shayden is a combination of public and private efforts, and is universal in a majority of states. In 2004, private insurance paid for 20% of personal health expenditures.

In 1974, 9.6 million Shaydians, 4.7% of the population, were uninsured, 2.4 million less than in 1969. The main cause of this drop is the rise of universal healthcare, which in 1981 became universal in all states in Shayden. In 1970, Massinette became the first state to mandate universal health insurance. In 1982, the Shayden Health Act passed the Federal Council and was signed by the President, officially instating Universal Healthcare into the Shayden Health System.