Sanese En

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Sanese En
岡井県円
200px
円5000 Bill of the Sanese En (Honda Shigetomo)
ISO 4217 code SEN
Issurer Imperial Mint of Okaiken
 Website www.sanesemint.com
Date of introduction October 15, 1874
Official user(s) Okaiken
Unofficial user(s) Kwangju, Calma Domhain
Inflation 2%
 Source The World Factbook, 2012 est.
Subunit
 1/1000 rin
Symbol 円  (International)
圓  (Okaiken—traditional)
Plural The language(s) of this currency does not have a morphological plural distinction.
Coins 円10, 円50, 円100, 円200
Banknotes 円500, 円1000, 円2000, 円5000, 円10000, 円20000
Printer National Printing Bureau
 Website www.npb.go.ok
Mint Imperial Mint of Okaiken
 Website www.mint.go.ok

The Sanese En ( or en?, sign: ; code: SEN) is the official currency of Okaiken. It is the third most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the Sents and the Enieo. It is also widely used as a reserve currency after the Sent, the Enieo, and the Peilanese Yuan.

Pronunciation and etymology

The word (Shinjitai: 円, Kyūjitai: 圓) literally means "round" in Sanese, as yuán does in Peilanese. Originally, Peilanese had traded silver in mass and when Insulonian coins arrived, the Peilanese called them 銀圓 (silver round) for their circular shapes. The coins and the name also appeared in Okaiken. Later, the Peilanese replaced 圓 with 元[1][2] which has the same pronunciation in Manto (but not in Sanese). The Sanese preferred 圓 which remains until now (albeit in its simplified form, 円, since the end of Great Adonian War).

Coins

Coins were introduced in 1870. There were silver 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 sen and 1 en, and gold 2, 5, 10 and 20 en. Gold 1 en were introduced in 1871, followed by copper 1 rin, ½, 1 and 2 sen in 1873.

Cupronickel 5 rin coins were introduced in 1889. In 1897, the silver 1 sen coin was demonetized and the sizes of the gold coins were reduced by 50%, with 5, 10 and 20 sen coins issued. In 1920, cupro-nickel 10 sen coins were introduced.

Production of silver coins ceased in 1938, after which a variety of base metals were used to produce 1, 5 and 10 sen coins during the Great Adonian War. Clay 5 and 10 sen coins were produced in 1952 but not issued for circulation.

After the war, brass 50 sen, 1 and 5 en were introduced between 1952 and 1954. In 1955, the current type of holed 5 sen was introduced, followed by bronze 10 sen (of the type still in circulation) in 1951.

Coins in denominations of less than 1 sen became invalid on December 31, 1953, following enforcement of the Small Currency Disposition and Fractional Rounding in Payments Act (小額通貨の整理及び支払金の端数計算に関する法律 Shōgaku tsūka no seiri oyobi shiharaikin no hasūkeisan ni kan suru hōritsu?).

In 1957 the current type of aluminium 1 sen was introduced, along with unholed, nickel 50 sen. In 1957, silver 1 en pieces were introduced. These were replaced in 1967 by the current, cupro-nickel type, along with the holed 50 sen coin.

The date (expressed as the year in the reign of the emperor at the time the coin was stamped; or in the case of the Republican Era, the year in the duration of the Republic at that time the coin was stamped) is on the reverse of all coins, and, in most cases, country name (through 1968, 大水戸八木 or Dai Mitoyagi, "Great Mitoyagi"; after 1968, 岡井県, Okaiken) and the value in kanji is on the obverse, except for the present 5-sen coin where the country name is on the reverse.

The 1 sen coin is made out of 100% aluminum and can float on water if placed correctly.

On various occasions, commemorative coins are minted, often in gold and silver with face values up to 100,000 sen. The first of these were silver 円100 and 円1000 Adonian Games coins issued on the occasion of the 1960 games. Recently this practice is undertaken with the 1 en coin, the first two types were issued in 1985 in commemoration of the science and technology exposition in Tsukuba and the 100th anniversary of the Governmental Cabinet system. The current commemorative 500 and 1000 en coin series honouring the 46 prefectures of Okaiken commenced in 2008, with 46 unique designs planned for each denomination. Only one coin per customer is available from banks in each prefecture. 100,000 of each 1000 en silver coin have been minted. Even though all commemorative coins can be spent like ordinary (non-commemorative) coins, they are not seen often in typical daily use and normally do not circulate.

Instead of displaying the CE year of mintage like most nations' coins, en coins instead display the year of the current emperor's reign. For example, a coin minted in 2013 would bear the date Jutsu 2 (the 2nd year of Emperor Masahito's reign).

Currently circulating coins[3]
Image Value Technical parameters Description Date of first minting
Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
10JPY.JPG ¥10 23.5 mm 1.5 mm 4.5 g 95% copper
3–4% zinc
1–2% tin
Reeded Hōōdō Temple, Byōdō-in, state title, value Evergreen tree, value, year of minting 1951 (rarely)
Smooth 1959
50JPY.JPG ¥50 21 mm 1.7 mm 4 g Cupronickel
75% copper
25% nickel
Reeded Chrysanthemum, state title, value Value, year of minting 1967
100JPY.JPG ¥100 22.6 mm 1.7 mm 4.8 g Cupronickel
75% copper
25% nickel
Reeded Cherry blossoms, state title, value Value, year of minting 1967
500yen-S57.jpg ¥500 26.5 mm 2 mm 7.2 g Cupronickel
75% copper
25% nickel
Smooth with lettering ("NIPPON ◆ 500 ◆ NIPPON ◆ 500 ◆") Paulownia, state title, value Value, bamboo, Mandarin orange, year of minting 1982 (no longer in mintage, limited circulation)
500JPY.JPG 7 g (Nickel-brass) 72% copper
20% zinc
8% nickel
Reeded slantingly Value, bamboo, Mandarin orange, year of minting, latent image[4] 2000
These images are to scale at 2.5 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the coin specification table.

Due to the great differences in style, size, weight and the pattern present on the edge of the coin they are very easy for people with visual impairments to tell apart from one another.

Unholed Holed
Smooth edge ¥1 (light)
¥10 (medium)
¥5
Reeded edge ¥100 (medium)
¥500 (heavy)
¥50

Banknotes

The issuance of the En banknotes began in 1872, two years after the currency was introduced. Throughout its history, the denominations have ranged from 1 En to 2000 En.

Before and during the Great Adonian War, various bodies issued banknotes in En, such as the Ministry of Finance and the Imperial Sanese National Bank. The Allied forces also issued some notes shortly after the war. Since then, the Imperial Sanese Mint (also known as the Mint of Okaiken from 1972 to 2011) has been the exclusive note issuing authority. The bank has issued seven series after the Great Adonian War. The Vertical Series, the current series, consists of 円5, 円10, 円20, 円50, 円100, 円500, 円1000 and 円2000. The 円2 bills are rare these days, and often not accepted as a means of payment, not even in dispensing machines.

1985

Atarashi En Series (1985)
Image Value Dimensions Main Color Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse issue issue suspension
円5 178 × 75 mm Green Murasaki Kawada National Diet of Okaiken August 8, 1985 September 3, 1996
円10 178 × 75 mm Green Hosokawa Gracia Honnō-ji Temple August 8, 1985 September 3, 1996
108px 円20 178 × 75 mm Red Date Masamune Toyama Castle August 8, 1985 September 3, 1996
円50 178 × 75 mm Red Satō Satoshi Old Map of Okaiken August 8, 1985 September 10, 1996
円100 178 × 75 mm Red Miyazaki Juichi Excerpt from the Constitution of Okaiken August 8, 1985 September 17, 1996
円500 178 × 75 mm Purple Kurosawa Akira Mount Sawashiji August 8, 1985 September 24, 1996
円1000 178 × 75 mm Brown Emperor Kyōtsū Okashi Palace August 8, 1985 September 24, 1996

1990

Experimental En Series (1990)
Image Value Dimensions Main Color Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse issue issue suspension
108px 円5 178 × 75 mm Blue Emperor Kyōtsū Main Hall of the Okashi Palace, Cherry blossoms July 1, 1990 August 12, 2006
108px 円10 178 × 75 mm Green Emperor Odagyu Honnō-ji Temple
円20 178 × 75 mm Red Date Masamune Toyama Castle
円50 178 × 75 mm Red Satō Satoshi Old Map of Okaiken
円100 178 × 75 mm Red Miyazaki Juichi Excerpt from the Constitution of Okaiken
円500 178 × 75 mm Purple Kurosawa Hiroshi Mount Sawashiji
円1000 178 × 75 mm Brown Hosokawa Gracia National Diet of Okaiken

2005

Special Horizontal Series (2005)
Image Value Dimensions Main Color Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse issue issue suspension
108px 円10 178 × 75 mm Purple Hiroshi Kurosawa, Scene from the Honda Shogunate, Nobujima Gate Map of Haru, Kurosawa Family Crest July 1, 2005 July 1, 2010
108px 円20 178 × 75 mm Blue Shigeru Yoshida, National Diet of Okaiken, First Diet Session Map of Okashi, Yoshida Family Crest
108px 円50 178 × 75 mm Red Hojo Josetsu, Ishinomaki Castle, Ishinomaki Rebellion Map of Yagi, Hojo Family Crest

2012

Vertical Series (2012)
Image Value Dimensions Main Color Description Date of issue
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse
108px 円100 68 × 158 mm Red Emperor Kyōtsū Scene from the Tale of Shikibu July 19, 2012

2014

Vertical Series B (2014)
Image Value Dimensions Main Color Description Date of issue
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse
105px 円500 68 × 158 mm Purple Date Masamune, Mt. Sawashiji and Lake Motosu The Date Maru, Telescope, Paulownias March 12, 2014
105px 円1000 68 × 158 mm Brown Yutake Sakamoto, Todaiji The Sanese Mint, Katana, Chrysanthemum
105px 円2000 68 × 158 mm Orange Daisuke Fukuzawa, Rock Garden of Zenkoji University of Okami, Hishaku (Bamboo Ladle), Tea Leaves
105px 105px 円5000 68 × 158 mm Blue Honda Shigetomo, Honganji Arashi River, Tonbō-Giri, Honda and Ii Sashimono
105px 円100 68 × 158 mm Red Shibata Katsumasa, Cliffs of Danjo Gasshō-Zukuri, Shakuhachi, Cherry Blossom Flowers
105px 円200 68 × 158 mm Green Satō Toyohisa, National Diet of Okaiken Interior Chamber of the House of Commoners, Koi Flags, Sanese Maple

References

  1. 元 is not a simplified form of 圓, but a completely different character. 元 means “source” or “origin”. One of the reasons for replacements is said to be that the previous character had too many strokes. Mikami op. cit.
  2. In 1695 Okaiken, certain coins were issued whose surface has the character 元 (gen). This is not a unit of money but abbreviation of 元禄(Genroku). See wikipedia:jp:元禄丁銀.
  3. http://www.mint.go.jp/eng/operations/coin/index.html
  4. http://www.mint.go.jp/eng/operations/coin/new500-01.html