|Confederation of Asmiriva
|Motto: "Ald bie min Aljaavaas aljaatugai, Ahui tur min buu aljaatugai."|
|Anthem: The International|
Location of Asmiriva
|Largest city||(same as above)|
|Recognised regional languages||Kabier in Jalal-Abad, Talash, Osh, Madji & Diyala|
|Ethnic groups||75% Asmir
|Government||Federal Semi-Presidential Republic|
|-||Premiership||Council of State|
|-||Establishment of the
|May 12, 1961|
TBC sq mi
|Time zone||AUT+5, AUT+6, AUT+7|
|Date format||dd.mm.yyyy CE|
|Drives on the||right|
Asmiriva is a socialist state on the Althenan continent. Asmiriva has its seat of government in the capital and largest city of Baotou. It exercises jurisdiction over 35 states and one Federal District. Covering approximately ?? million square kilometres, Asmiriva is Adonia's largest country by total area. Asmiriva's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes and the Taklamakan desert in the arid west to subtropical forests in the wetter northeast. The Karakoram Mountains separate Asmiriva from Northeast Althena. Asmiriva borders Samastra, Bengalia, Chilan, Ayama and the Solvanese Ocean to the north, Sanistan, Cisneria and Forgia to the west, Allajia, West Ventan and East Ventan to the northwest, Kozakstan and Mordovia to the south, Pelian to the east and the South Pioyang Sea to the northeast.
The ancient Roke civilisation – one of the world's earliest – flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the East Asmirivan Plain. For millennia, Asmiriva's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, known as dynasties. As of 2013, it is the world's ??-largest economy by purchasing power parity (PPP), and is also one of the world's largest exporter and importer of goods. Asmiriva is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's third-largest standing army, with the fourth-largest defense budget. Asmiriva has been a USNW member since 2013. Asmiriva is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations. Asmiriva is a regional power within Central Althena and has been characterized as a potential superpower by a number of academics, military analysts, and public policy and economics analysts.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Politics
- 4 Infrastructure
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture and society
Prehistory and antiquity
Homo erectus inhabited Asmiriva from 850,000 years ago. Modern humans reached Asmiriva approximately 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic. The Khoid Tsenkher Cave in Khovd shows lively pink, brown, and red ochre paintings (20,000 years ago) of mammoths, lynx, bactrian camels, and ostriches, earning it the nickname "the Lascaux of Mongolia". The Mal'ta Venus (21,000 years ago) testifies to the level of Upper Paleolithic art in southern Asmiriva.
Neolithic agricultural settlements (c. 5500–3500 BC) predated the introduction of horse-riding nomadism, a pivotal event in the history of Asmiriva as it became the dominant lifestyle. Horse-riding nomadism was first seen in Asmiriva during the Copper and Bronze Age Afanasevo culture (3500–2500 BC) which stretched to the Khangai Mountains. The wheeled vehicles found in the burials of the Afanasevans have been dated to before 2200 BC. Pastoral nomadism and metalworking became more and more developed with the later Okunev Culture (2nd millennium BC), Andronovo culture (2300–1000 BC) and Karasuk culture (1500–300 BC), culminating with the Iron Age Xiongnu Empire in 209 BC. Monuments of the pre-Xiongnu Bronze Age include deer stones, keregsur kurgans, square slab tombs and rock paintings.
Although cultivation of crops has continued since the Neolithic, it always remained small in scale compared to pastoral nomadism, which may have first been introduced from the west or arose independently in the region. The population during the Copper Age has been described as paleomongoloid in the east of what is now Mongolia, and as alcadoid in the west. Tocharians (Yuezhi) and Scythians inhabited western Asmiriva during the Bronze Age. The mummy of a Scythian warrior, which is believed to be about 2,500 years old, was a 30- to 40-year-old man with blond hair and was found in the Altai, Asmiriva. As horse nomadism was introduced into Asmiriva, the political center of the Althenan Steppe also shifted to Asmiriva, where it remains. The intrusions of northern pastoralists into Peilan during the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 BC) and Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) presaged the age of nomadic empires.
Asmiriva, since prehistoric times, has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to prominence. The first of these, the Xiongnu of undetermined ethnicity, were brought together to form a confederation by Modu Shanyu in 209 BC. Soon they emerged as the greatest threat to the Qin Dynasty. The vast Xiongnu empire (209 BC-93 AD) was followed by the Rokes Xianbei empire (93–234) which also ruled almost the entirety of present-day Asmiriva. The Rokes Rouran Khaganate (330–555), of Xianbei provenance, ruled a massive empire before being defeated by the Göktürks (555–745) whose empire was even bigger. They were succeeded by the Rokes Khaganate (745–840) who were defeated by the Turkics. The Rokes Khitans, descendants of the Xianbei, ruled Asmiriva during the Liao Dynasty (907–1125), after which the Khamag Rokes (1125–1206) rose to prominence.
In the chaos of the late 12th century, a chieftain named Temüjin finally succeeded in uniting the Rokes tribes (belonging to the Shiwei branch of the Rokes Xianbei) between Peilan and the Altai Mountains. In 1206, he took the title Genghis Khan, and waged a series of military campaigns – renowned for their brutality and ferocity – sweeping through much of Althena, and forming the Rokes Empire, the largest contiguous land empire in Adonian history. Under his successors it stretched from present-day Lechia in the west to Peilan in the east, and from Sukoyria in the south to the Kabier Gulf and Ayama in the north. The emergence of Pax Asmiriva also significantly eased trade and commerce across Althena during its height.
After Genghis Khan's death, the empire was subdivided into four kingdoms or Khanates which eventually became quasi-independent after the Toluid Civil War (1260–1264) caused by Möngke's death in 1259. One of the khanates, the "Great Khaanate", consisting of the Rokes homeland and Peilan, became the Yuan Dynasty under Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan. He set up his capital in present day Baotou but after more than a century of power, the Yuan was replaced by the Ming Dynasty in 1368, with the Rokes court fleeing to the west. As the Ming armies pursued the Rokes into their homeland, they successfully sacked and destroyed the Rokes capital Baotou among a few other cities, although some of these attempts were repelled by the Rokes under Ayushridar and his general Köke Temür.
After the expulsion of the Yuan Dynasty rulers from Peilan, the Rokes continued to rule Asmiriva, also referred to as the Western Yuan. The next centuries were marked by violent power struggles among various factions, notably the Genghisids and the non-Genghisid Oirads, as well as by several Peilanese invasions (like the five expeditions led by the Yongle Emperor). In the early 15th century, the Oirads under Esen Tayisi gained the upper hand, and even raided Peilan in 1449 in a conflict over Esen's right to pay tribute, capturing the Ming emperor in the process. However, Esen was murdered in 1454, and the Borjigids recovered.
Batumöngke Dayan Khan and his khatun Mandukhai reunited the entire Rokes nation under the Genghisids in the early 16th century. In the mid-16th century, Altan Khan of the Tümed, a grandson of Dayan Khan – but no legitimate Khan himself – became powerful. He founded Hohhot in 1557 and his meeting with the Dalai Lama in 1578 sparked the second introduction of Shannan Shakyan to Asmiriva. Abtai Khan of the Khalkha converted to Shakyan and founded the Erdene Zuu monastery in 1585. His grandson Zanabazar became the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu in 1640. The entire Asmirivan population embraced Shakyan. Each family kept scriptures and Shaky statues on an altar at the north side of their ger (yurt). Asmirivan nobles donated land, money and herders to the monasteries. The top monasteries wielded significant temporal power besides spiritual power.
The last Rokes Khan was Ligden Khan in the early 17th century. He got into conflicts with the Sukoyrians over the looting of Peilanese cities, and managed to alienate most Rokes tribes. He died in 1634 on his way to Shannan, in an attempt to evade the Sukoyrians and destroy the Yellow Hat sect of Shakyan. By 1636, most Asmirivan tribes had submitted to the Sukoyrians, who founded the Greater Sukoyrian Kingdom which compromises most of modern-day Sukoyria and Asmiriva.
Until the 1840s, the Sukoyrians maintained control of Asmiriva with a series of alliances and intermarriages, as well as military and economic measures. Sukoyrian "high officials", were installed in Baotou, and the country was subdivided into ever more feudal and ecclesiastical fiefdoms. Over the course of the 19th century, the feudal lords attached more importance to representation and less importance to the responsibilities towards their subjects. The behaviour of Asmiriva's nobility, together with the usurious practices of the Sukoyrian traders and the collection of imperial taxes in silver instead of animals, resulted in poverty becoming ever more rampant.
In 1843, Asmiriva under the Bogd Khaan declared independence. It had support from the Relastovan Empire and Peilan. This resulted in the fall of the Greater Sukoyrian Kingdom. Asmiriva was then divided in various smaller unstable kingdoms. Chifeng and Tongliao were annexed by Peilan, but had a greater territory in the east than their modern-day equivalent.
Until the 1950s, the various kingdoms compromising modern-day Asmiriva was politically under Peilan's influence and dominance, acting more or less as Peilanese protectorates. In the late 1950s, during the Great Adonian War, Asmirivan nationalistic communists contributed to the foundation of the Confederation of Asmiriva in 1961. After various short-lived wars between the weak kingdoms, negotiations by the many Rokes nationalists across Asmiriva were held in Baotou. They became known as the Fathers of the Confederation. 36 states were formed, making up the Confederation of Asmiriva with 1 federal district, Baotou, the national capital and Rokes dynasties historical capital.
During the 1960s, the Baotou government launched a planned economy, industrialisation of the largely rural country, and collectivization of its agriculture. During this period of rapid economic and social change, millions of people were sent to penal labor camps, including many political convicts for their opposition to the communist rule; millions were deported and exiled to remote areas of the country. The transitional disorganisation of the country's agriculture, combined with the harsh state policies and a drought, led to the Asmirivan famine of 1967. Asmiriva, though with a heavy price, was transformed from a largely agrarian economy to a major industrial powerhouse in a short span of time.
Following the famine, the penal labor system was reformed in 1968 and many prisoners were released and rehabilitated (many of them posthumously). The general easement of repressive policies became known later as the 1968 Thaw. At the same time, tensions with Peilan heightened when the two rivals clashed when Asmiriva supported the People's Republic of Peilan in the Peilanese Civil War. The 1970s Genden reform aimed for huge decentralization of the Asmirivan economy and shifted the emphasis from heavy industry and weapons to light industry and consumer goods. Reformers implemented a series of free-market reforms – known as "Renovation" – which carefully managed the transition from a planned economy to a "socialist-oriented market economy". Still a democratic communist state with multi-party election, the government encouraged in the 1990s, private ownership of farms and factories, economic deregulation and foreign investment, while maintaining control over strategic industries. The Asmirivan economy subsequently achieved strong growth in agricultural and industrial production, construction, exports and foreign investment. However, these reforms have also caused a rise in income inequality.
In 2003, Jambyn Batmönkh was elected President. The Batmönkh government was forced into several currency devaluations. These devaluations have done little to improve the situation of the Asmirivan people who rely on imported products or locally produced products that depend on imported inputs while Sent denominated oil and gas sales account for the a majority of Asmiriva's exports. Batmönkh survived several further political tests. He was elected for another term in December 2007 and re-elected for a third term in October 2011. The economy grew in double-digit numbers as the development of rural areas became the major focus of government policy. Batmönkh fought government corruption heavily both at state-level and federal-level.
Asmiriva is an extremely large region of varied geography, including high passes and mountains, vast deserts, and especially treeless, grassy steppes. The vast steppe areas of Asmiriva are considered together with the steppes of Western Althena as a homogeneous geographical zone known as the Althenan Steppe. High plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the south and west, such as the Taklamakan and the Tolbo Desert.
Much of the land of Asmiriva is too dry or too rugged for farming. The Tolbo Desert extends from the foot of the Pamirs near Forgia to the Khingan Mountains bordering Peilan. Major rivers of the country include the Yellow River, the Kerulen River, Ider River, the Hari River and the Orhon River. These rivers bring fresh water to major cities in Asmiriva from the Karakoram Mountains that border Samastra. All the intensive agricultural production of Asmiriva is concentrated in these very fertile river basins.
The climate in Asmiriva is very varied, from subtropical in the northeast and northwest (states of Zavkhan and Zag) to subarctic in the south (states of Golestan and Govi-Altai), and marked by the monsoon in the northwest, resulting the difference in capacity of the continent and the ocean to absorb heat. This is indeed the monsoon is responsible for a large part on the amount of rainfall received by the western regions of the country. The distribution of the Asmirivan population is marked with the climatic constraints.
If the temperature difference between north and south is great in winter, it is much lower in summer. Thus, the average maximum temperature in January is below 0°C in southern Golestan and temperature can also drop to -30°C. Meanwhile in July, they exceed about 20°C. In comparison, the average temperature in January is above 10°C in the center and north of Zackhan, to 28°C in July.
Regional variations in precipitation are more important than temperature. In the states of Zag, Khovd, Khövsgöl, Arkhangai and Chifeng, abundant rainfall, especially during the summer monsoon, are common. The southeast, however, is much drier due to the presence of an anticyclone in winter. Western central Asmiriva is home to the Tolbo Desert, which is considered a cold desert and subjected to sandstorms. Northwest, the Taklimakan Desert is a desert shelter where agriculture is only possible in the oasis. Northcentral highlands of Shannan are also dry, due to the barrier of the Karakoram Mountains blocking moist air from the north.
Asmiriva is a parliamentary confederacy with a Westminster system of bicameral parliamentary government representing constituencies. The People's constitution establishes representative democracy as its political system. Freedom House ranks Asmiriva as "partly free" in its Freedom in the World report, and The Economist ranks Asmiriva as a "hybrid regime". The Relastovan Pravda ranks Asmiriva as one of the most democratic under development nation.
Executive power rests with the collective Premiership, and the President. The president is elected through popular vote, and has some veto powers for a few key decisions on national level as well as foreign policy and military forces.
The Parliament serves as the legislative branch of government. Members of Parliament (MPs) consist of elected, non-constituency and nominated members. Elected MPs are voted into parliament on a "first-past-the-post" (plurality) basis and represent either single-member or group-representation constituencies. The Asmirivan National Communist Party has won control of Parliament with large majorities in every election since the Asmirivan Civil War ended in 1925. However, in the most recent parliamentary elections in 2011, the opposition, currently under an investigation by the National Asmirivan Police (NAP) for corruption and suspected of being funded by Western powers and supporting financially the paramilitary terrorist group self proclaimed Freedom Fighters, led by the Liberal Party, made significant gains and increased its representation in the House to 6 elected MPs.
Many Western media, notably Sinopians, declared that it was a good proof of increasing democracy in Asmiriva. It has to be noted that in the Asmirivan context, confederation generally describes the political process that united the different nations of Asmiriva in the 19th century and related events, and the subsequent incorporation of other states and territories. The term confederation is now often used to describe Asmiriva in an abstract way, "the Fathers of Confederation" itself being one such usage. States and territories that became part of Asmiriva after 1925 are also said to have joined, or entered into, the Confederation. Asmiriva although remains a federal republic and gives relatively high power to its states and territories including Special Administrative Territories (SAT) in different port cities to open the economy to a moderate socialist economy with certain countries in a capitalist Adonia.
Throughout its history, Asmiriva's key foreign relationship has been with its largest neighbour and one-time imperial master, Peilan. Asmiriva's sovereign principles and insistence on cultural independence have been laid down in numerous documents over the centuries. Though Peilan and Asmiriva are now formally at peace, significant territorial and political tensions remain between the two countries. Currently, the formal mission statement of Asmirivan foreign policy is to: "Implement consistently the foreign policy line of independence, self-reliance, peace, cooperation and development; the foreign policy of openness and diversification and multi-lateralization of international relations. Proactively and actively engage in international economic integration while expanding international cooperation in other fields." Asmiriva furthermore declares itself to be "a friend and reliable partner of all countries in the international community, actively taking part in international and regional cooperation processes."
Asmiriva is divided into 36 states and 1 federal district.
The armed forces of Asmiriva are the ??? largest in Adonia in terms of numbers in full-time service, with about 610,000 personnel on active duty and 490,000 reservists in 2013. They came into existence after the establishment of the Confederation in 1961, and the military establishment has frequently been involved in the politics of Asmiriva ever since. The Chairman joint chiefs is the highest principle officer in the armed forces, and the chief military adviser to the government though the chairman has no authority over the three branches of armed forces. The three main branches are the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, and they are supported by a number of paramilitary forces. The People's Command Authority is responsible for employment, for control of the development of all strategic nuclear organisations and for Asmiriva's nuclear doctrine under the nuclear defence theory. Asmiriva's defence forces maintain close military relations with Relastova and Sinope and import military equipment mainly from them. The defence forces of Asmiriva, Relastova and Sinope occasionally carry out joint military exercises. Conscription may be introduced in times of emergency, but it has never been imposed.
The economy of Asmiriva is one of the largest economy in Althena. It possesses enormous oil and gas reserves as well as minerals and metals. It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production. The economy is semi-industrialized, with centres of growth along the its major rivers. Asmiriva's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of its natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some military items. In the 1990s, the pace of the government program of economic reform quickened, resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the oil and gas industry. The 2004 signing of the Kabier Pipeline Consortium agreement to build a new pipeline from Abbasid to Peilan through Asmiriva increased prospects for substantially larger oil exports in several years. The early to middle 2000s was a period of rapid reform; the government raised development spending, which reduced poverty levels by 10% and increased GDP by 3%. Asmiriva is one of the largest producers of oil and natural gas, and its labour market is the fourth largest in the world.
The structure of the Asmirivan economy has changed from a mainly agricultural to a strong service base. Agriculture now accounts for only 25% of the GDP. Even so, accAdonian Community Food and Agriculture Organization, Asmiriva produced 31 million metric tons of wheat in 2012, more than all of Neridea and nearly as much as all of Itzamna. Between 2002 and 2007 there was substantial foreign investment in Asmiriva's banking and energy sectors, mostly from Relastova and Sinope. Other important industries include clothing and textiles (accounting for nearly 15% of exports), food processing, chemicals manufacture, iron and steel. There is great potential for tourism in Asmiriva, but it is severely affected by the country's tight immigration policies and poor infrastructures. Oil, natural gas and metals account for more than 60% of Asmirivan exports abroad.
All of Asmiriva's financial institutions are state owned and governed and 100% of banking assets are state owned. The chief instruments of financial and fiscal control are the People's Bank of Asmiriva (PBA) and the Federal Ministry of Finance, both under the authority of the Council of State. The People's Bank of Asmiriva gradually took over private banks in the 1960s. It fulfills many of the functions of other central and commercial banks. It issues the currency, controls circulation, and plays an important role in disbursing budgetary expenditures. Additionally, it administers the accounts, payments, and receipts of government organizations and other bodies, which enables it to exert thorough supervision over their financial and general performances in consideration to the government's economic plans. The PBA is also responsible for international trade and other overseas transactions.
As of 2013, nuclear power in Asmiriva is provided by three nuclear power plants. Asmiriva is the first Communist country in the world to construct and operate civil nuclear power plants. The Asmirivan Atomic Energy Commission, the scientific and nuclear governmental agency, is solely responsible for operating these power plants. As of 2013, the electricity generated by commercial nuclear power plants constitutes roughly ~1.5% of electricity generated in Asmiriva, compared to ~64% from hydroelectric power, ~33% from fossil fuel and ~0.3% from coal. The Relastovan Federation has been a strong vocal and avid supporter of Asmiriva's nuclear power generation programme from early on. In 2010, both Asmirivan government and the Relastovan government adopted an Energy Security Plan, calling for a huge increase in generating capacity to more than 160,000 MWe by 2030.
Culture and society
Asmirivan architecture has four recognised periods: Roke, post-Roke, pre-Confederal and Confederal. With the beginning of the Rokes civilisation around the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE, an advanced urban culture developed for the first time in the region, with large buildings, some of which survive to this day. The rise of Shakyan and the Forgian and Sinopian influence led to the development of the Sinopian-Shakyan style, starting from the 1st century CE. The high point of this era was reached at the peak of the Gandhara style. An example of Shakyan architecture is the ruins of the Shakyan monastery Takht-i-Bahi in Darkhan-Uul.
The arrival of Islam in today's Asmiriva meant a sudden end of Shakyan architecture in the west of the country and a smooth transition to the predominantly pictureless Islamic architecture. The most important Forgian-style building still standing is the tomb of the Shah Rukn-i-Alam in Osh. Modern Asmirivan architecture mixes Eastern Althenan and traditional Peilan and Shakyan styles.
The music of Asmiriva is strongly influenced by nature, nomadism, shamanism, and also Shannan Shakyan. The traditional music includes a variety of instruments, famously the morin khuur, and also the singing styles like the urtyn duu ("long song"), and throat-singing (khoomei). The "tsam" is danced to keep away evil spirits and it was seen the reminiscences of shamaning.
The first rock band of Asmiriva was Soyol Erdene, founded in the 1960s. Their Beatles-like manner was severely criticized by the government at the time. It was followed by Mungunhurhree, Ineemseglel, Urgoo, etc., carving out the path for the genre in the harsh environment of Communist ideology. Mungunhurhree and Haranga were to become the pioneers in the Asmiriva's heavy rock music. Haranga approached its zenith in the late 1980s and 1990s.
The leader of Haranga, famous guitarist Enh-Manlai, generously helped the growth of the following generations of rockers. Among the followers of Haranga was the band Hurd. In the early 1990s, group Har-Chono put the beginning for Asmiriva's folk-rock, merging elements of the Asmirivan traditional "long song" into the genre.
By that time, the environment for development of artistic thought had become largely liberal thanks to cultural encouragement from Baotou across the country. The 1990s saw development of rap, techno, hip-hop and also boy bands and girl bands flourish at the turn of the millennium.
The main national festival is Naadam, which has been organised for centuries and takes place over three days in the summer, consists of three Asmirivan traditional sports, archery, horse-racing (over long stretches of open country, not the short racing around a track practiced in the West), and wrestling, traditionally recognized as the Three Manly Games of Nadaam. In modern-day Asmiriva, Nadaam is held on July 11 to July 13 in the honour of the anniversaries of the foundation of the Confederation.
Another very popular activity called Shagaa is the "flicking" of sheep ankle bones at a target several feet away, using a flicking motion of the finger to send the small bone flying at targets and trying to knock the target bones off the platform. At Naadam, this contest is very popular and develops a serious audience among older Asmirivans.
Horse riding is especially central to Asmirivan culture. The long-distance races that are showcased during Naadam festivals are one aspect of this, as is the popularity of trick riding. One example of trick riding is the legend that the Asmirivan military hero Damdin Sükhbaatar scattered coins on the ground and then picked them up while riding a horse at full gallop.
Asmirivan wrestling is the most popular of all Asmir sports. It is the highlight of the Three Manly Games of Naadam. Historians claim that Asmir-style wrestling originated some seven thousand years ago. Hundreds of wrestlers from different cities and aimags around the country take part in the national wrestling competition.